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A Few Notes on the Evils of Innovation.

by Brother Abû Rumaysah

 

Prologue

The Deen is complete

Allaah says,

 

"this day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islaam as your religion"
(5:4)

 



This verse embodies a clear statement that the religion has been completed and so has no need of addition and deletion, and our noble Messenger (SAW) said, "there is nothing that Allaah ordered you with except that I have ordered you with it, and there is nothing that Allaah forbade you from except that I have forbidden you from it" (al-Bayhaqee and others)

And he (SAW) said,

 

"there is nothing that will take you closer to paradise but that I have enjoined it upon you, and there is nothing that will take you closer to hell but that I have warned you from it"
(Musnad ash-Shaafi'ee and others)

So the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) fulfilled the trust placed upon him by Allaah completely, explaining the religion to the people in it's inward and outward form, making clear the lawful from the prohibited, the encouraged from the discouraged, even to the extent that he taught us the manners of going to the toilet, the manners of having sex with our partners etc.

Allaah says in His Book,

 

"and We have revealed to you a Book explaining everything"
(16:89)

 

and He says,

 

"We have neglected nothing in the Book"
(6:37).

 

So in the Qur'aan is explained the principles of the religion, tawheed in all it's various categories, even to the extent that it teaches us the manners of sitting in circles, visiting other peoples houses, the correct clothing etc.

The Importance of Sticking to the Sunnah

 

Allaah says, "indeed you have in the Messenger of Allaah an excellent example for the one who hopes in Allaah and looks to the Last Day."
(33:21)

 

He also says,

 

"so if you obey him (i.e. Muhammad), then you will be guided"
(25:54)

 


The Messenger of Allaah said,

 

"I have left behind me two things, if you cling to them you will never go astray. They are the Book of Allaah and my Sunnah"
(al-Haakim)

And he (SAW) also said,

 

"…and you will live to see great difference, so cling to my sunnah and the sunnah of the rightly guided caliphs after me, even if it be with your teeth"
(Bukhaaree)


The Taabi'ee, the Imaam, az-Zuhree commented,

 

"clinging to the sunnah is to be saved, as Imaam Maalik said, 'like the Ark of Noah', he who embarked upon it was saved, and he who did not was destroyed."
(ad-Daarimee)

In these narrations is clear evidence that the way of salvation and safety is to closely follow the Sunnah of our Prophet (SAW), and not to deviate from his path, not accepting the guidance of another individual, nor accepting a corrupted form of the Sunnah. Allaah says, "and whosoever contends with the Messenger after guidance has been made clear to him, and follows a way other than the way of the believers, We shall leave in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil destination!"

The Sunnah shall become corrupted

We are taught in the revelation that the Sunnah shall become corrupted and this corruption would become the norm, so much so that the people who follow the Sunnah would become as strangers, and those that call to purifying the sunnah would be slandered and reviled.

 

The Prophet (SAW) said, "Islaam began as something strange, and it shall return as something strange as it began. So Tooba (a tree in paradise) to the strangers." It was asked, "who are the strangers?" He replied, "those that purify and correct what the people have corrupted of my sunnah"
(Tabaraanee in al-Kabeer [6/202])

And what is this corruption, it is none other than innovation, introducing into the pure religion of Allaah new ways of worshipping Him that He has not taught, blemishing His religion with our whims and desires, something that Allaah Himself condemns,

 

"or do they have partners that legislate some religion which Allaah has not given permission for?"
(42:21)

 

The Companion, Abdullaah ibn Mas'ud laments,

 

"how will it be when the trials overcome you, in which the young grow old and the old grow senile. And the people take the bid'ah as the sunnah, and when it changes they say: the sunnah has changed. It was said: when will this be O Abu Abdurrahmaan? He replied: when your speakers are many and your scholars are few, and the wealthy ones are plenty and the trustworthy ones are few."
(ad-Daarimee)

How true this statement is today, that the innovations have become so widespread in the religion that the people have taken then to be the Sunnah. And when the true scholar speaks out against these innovations he is labelled as a 'wahhabi' by the people because to them it seems that he is changing the sunnah. To Allah we complain of the ignorance of our times!

Only Allaah (SWT) has the right to tell us how to worship Him

Allaah says,

 

"follow that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and do not follow as Friends and Protectors other than Him"
(7:3)

 

From the tafseer of this verse we learn that this verse is a categorical statement that the privilege to tell people how to worship Allaah belongs to Allaah Alone. And how could it be otherwise when the true meaning of ibaadah is to worship Allaah in a way which He is Pleased with and not according to our desires,

 

"and who is more astray then the one who follows his own whims and desires devoid of revelation"
(28:50)

 

In this regard the Prophet (SAW) said,

 

"I warn you of the newly invented matters (in the religion),and every newly invented matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance, and every misguidance is in the Hellfire"
(an-Nasaa'ee)

And he (SAW) used to say at the beginning of his lectures,

 

"….and the best speech is the Speech of Allah, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (SAW), and the worst of all affairs are the newly invented matters (in the religion)"
(Muslim)

And he (SAW) commanded us,

 

"whosoever does an action which we have not commanded then it must be rejected."
(Muslim)

And again

 

"whosoever introduces into this religion of ours that which is not part of it then it must be rejects"
(Ahmad)

'And in this hadeeth is a clear evidence that every action which is not legislated in the sharee'ah must be rejected' [Jaami al-Ulum of ibn Rajab 1/120]

So every bid'ah that is introduced in the religion has to be rejected because only Allaah and His Messenger (SAW) have the right to legislate in the sharee'ah of Islaam.

Hence in the light of what has preceded we can now give the formal Sharee'ah definition of bid'ah:
"a newly invented way (in beliefs and actions) in the religion, in imitation of the Sharee'ah, by which nearness to Allaah is sought, not being supported by any authentic proof, neither in it's foundations nor in the manner in which it is performed." [al-I'tisaam 1/231 of ash-Shaatibee]

And in what has preceded is ample evidence for any fairminded Muslim that all bid'ah is blameworthy, and in fact a major sin. But unfortunately the Muslims are in such a state today that the words of Allaah and His Messenger (SAW) are no longer enough to convince them and certain groups of people have come up with belief that has very frail grounds in the Sunnah. The belief of 'bid'ah hasanah', i.e. a good bid'ah, meaning that a scholar can introduce a new action of worship in Islaam which can be considered to be good as long it does not contradict any of the principles of Islaam. So we resort to the sayings of the Companions and the Imaams to illuminate the road ahead of these people.

The sayings of the Companions

Abdullaah ibn Umar (RA) states,

 

"every innovation is misguidance, even if the people regard it as good."
(ad-Daarimee)

This narration is enough to demolish the concept of 'a good bid'ah', for you have amongst the most knowledgeable companions of Muhammad (SAW) saying the exact opposite. So who do you choose to follow, ibn Umar or these modern day Shaykhs and Mullahs who are Imaams of their own whims and desires.

Abdullaah ibn Abbaas (RA) said,

 

"do not sit with the people of innovation, for verily their sittings are a sickness for the hearts"
[ash-Sharee'ah pg 65 of al-Aajurree (d.360)]

Mu'aadh bin Jabal (RA) used to say, whenever he sat in a circle of knowledge,

 

"…and I warn you of what is innovated, for all that is innovated is misguidance"
[ash-Sharee'ah pg.55, also Abu Dawood with similar wording]

Abdullaah ibn Mas'ud (RA) said,

 

"follow the sunnah of Muhammad and do not innovate, for what you have been commanded is enough for you."
[ad-Daarimee]

Hudhayfah bin al-Yaman said,

 

"every act of worship that the Companions did not do, do not do it"
[Abu Dawood]

Is this not enough? That the Companions tell us to follow the way of Muhammad (SAW) and not to make up new ways of worship? "whomsoever Allaah guides to the truth, none can misguide him, and whomsoever Allaah misguides, none can guide"! [Muslim]

The sayings of the Second and Third generation scholars

Hasan al-Basree said,

 

"do not sit with the people of innovation, do not debate with them or listen to them"
[ad-Daarimee 1/121]

Abul Aaliyah said,

 

"learn Islaam. Then when you have learned Islaam, do not turn away from it to the right or to the left. But be upon the Straight Path and be upon the Sunnah of your Prophet and that which his companions were upon…And beware of these innovations because they cause enmity and hatred amongst you, but stick to the original state of affairs that was there before they divided."
[al-Hilya of Abu Nu'aym 2/218]

Sufyaan ath-Thawree,

 

"innovations are more beloved to Satan than sin. Since a sin mat be repented from but an innovation is not repented from"
[Sharh Usul I'tiqaad of al-Laalikaa'ee (d.414) no.238]

This is because the innovator believes that he is doing something good and therefore sees no need to repent.

He also said, "…so cling to the original state of affairs" [al-Hilya 6/376] meaning stick to the Way of Muhammad (SAW) and his Companions.

Imaam al-Awzaa'ee said,

 

"patiently restrict yourselves to the sunnah, stop where the people stopped, say what they said, avoid what they avoided. Take to the path of the salaf, for indeed what was sufficient for them was sufficient for you."
[ash-Sharee'ah pg. 58]

Ibraaheem al-Masayrah said,

 

"he who honours an innovator has assisted in the demolition of Islaam"
[Sharh Usul I'tiqaad 1/139]

The sayings of the Later Imaams

Imaam Abu Haneefah said,

 

"stick to the narrations and the way of the salaf, and beware of the newly invented matters for all of it is innovation"
[Sawnul Muntaq of as-Suyutee pg.32]

Imaam Maalik said,

 

"he who innovates an innovation in Islaam regarding it as something good, has claimed that Muhammad (SAW) has betrayed his trust to deliver the message as Allaah says, 'this day have I perfected for you your religion'. And whatsoever was not part of the religion then, is not part of the religion today."
[al-I'tisaam]

He also said,

 

"how evil are the People of Innovation, we do not give them salaam"
[al-Ibaanah of ibn Battah (d.387) no.441]

Imaam Ahmad said,

 

"the fundamental principles of the sunnah with us are:….avoiding innovations and every innovation is misguidance"
[Usul as-Sunnah of Imaam Ahmad pg.1]

As for the narrations from Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee in which he categorises bid'ah into two, then it is weak as all of it's chains of narrations depend upon unknown narrators. [al-Bid'ah of Shaykh Saleem al-Hilaalee, al-Masaabeeh fee Salaatit Taraaweeh of as-Suyutee with Alee Hasans footnotes] and even if it were authentic then it would be understood in the linguistic sense as explained by ibn Rajab and others.

Imaam Bukhaaree said,

 

"I have met more than a thousand scholars….(then he mentioned the names of the more prominent in each of the lands that he travelled in)…and I found that they all agreed on the following points:…they all used to prohibit bid'ah - that which the Prophet and his Companions were not upon, because of the saying of Allaah, 'and hold fast to the rope of Allaah and do not separate'"
[Imaam Bukhaaree's article on belief as quoted in Sharh Usul I'tiqaad 1/170. From amongst the scholars he met were: Ahmad bin Hanbal, Abu Ubaid al-Qaasim, ibn Ma'een, ibn Aasim, ibn Abee Shaybah….]

What I have narrated here is just a small number of the many narrations that I have in front of me from various books, I have tried to quote as best to my ability only authentic narrations, and Allaah knows best. It is good to know that the early Imaams were prolific in writing and warning against bid'ah, and even today we have a number of books from them dealing just with this topic. Amongst them: al-Bid'ah of al-Qarnushi, al-Bid'ah of ibn Waddah, al-I'tisaam of ash-Shaatibee and many more. So once this topic becomes clear, a truth that none can deny, then know that all these innovations in the religions are a clear denial of the above mentioned verses and ahaadeeth, for none were done by the Companions.

So I leave you with the hadeeth of the Prophet (SAW), "….so he follows my sunnah has been guided, and he who follows the innovations has been destroyed." (Ahmad)

The arguments of the misguided

Know that every example that the misguided bring from the actions of the companions to prove their belief of a 'good innovation', is invalid and it just shows their weak understanding of the Sunnah of Muhammad (SAW), for all of these examples have a clear basis in the Sharee'ah, or occurred due to necessity, or from ijtihaad. Insha'allaah I will mention a few of their arguments.

When Umar (RA) was caliph, he collected the Muslims to pray in congregation for taraaweeh prayers and said, "what a good bid'ah this is" (Bukhaaree), Evidence is derived from this for 'bid'ah hasanah' but of course they have misunderstood the true intent of Umar which can be clearly understood if one were to quote the context of this narration.

When the Prophet (SAW) first prayed taraaweeh, the Muslims used to pray taraaweeh individually or in small groups, and then for three nights they prayed in one congregation behind the Prophet (SAW), and after this he stopped them doing so by saying, "I feared that it would become obligatory upon you." So after this again, the Muslims would pray individually or in small groups, and they remained like this throughout the rule of Abu Bakr and the beginning of the rule of Umar. Then Umar came to the Mosque and saw the Muslims praying in small groups and so gathered them as one jamaa'ah to pray behind Ubayy bin Ka'b and Tameem ad-Daaree and stated the above phrase. This context is reported in Bukhaaree, the Muwatta and others.

Firstly: how can the action of Umar be considered to be new when the Prophet (SAW) did it in his lifetime. Not only that but the Muslims were also in the habit of praying in small groups as well. Hence the praying of taraaweeh in jamaa'ah was well established in the sunnah and the practice of the sahaabah?

Secondly: The Prophet (SAW) gave the reason why he stopped the congregational prayer, for the revelation was still descending, and he feared that praying in obligation might become obligatory upon his nation, and that this might lead to be hard on them. After the death of Muhammad (SAW) revelation ceased so this fear was no longer present. Hence Umar (RA) reinstated the congregation during his rule because he knew his action could not be made obligatory upon the ummah.

Thirdly: all the companions agreed to this action of Umar (RA), there was a consensus (ijmaa) on this. And the scholars of usul have stated that a consensus cannot occur except when there is a clear text for it in the Sharee'ah.

Fourth: So how do we understand this statement of Umar, "what a good bid'ah this is" when this action that Umar called a bid'ah was done by the Prophet (SAW)? Bid'ah here can only be understood in it's linguistic sense and not in it's Sharee'ah sense i.e. when Umar said this he did not mean it in the legal sense that we may understand it today. For how many are the words that mean one thing in the language, but another thing in the Sharee'ah! The linguistic sense is: something new, because praying in one congregation was not present in the rule of Abu Bakr and the earlier period of his own rule.

Hence Abu Yusuf said,

 

"I asked Abu Haneefah about the taraaweeh and what Umar did and he replied, 'the taraaweeh is a stressed sunnah, and Umar did not do that from his own opinion, and neither was there in his action any innovation, and he did not enjoin it except that there was a foundation for it with him and authorisation from the Prophet…"
['Sharh Mukhtaar' as quoted from in 'al-Ibdaa' (pg. 80) of Shaykh Alee Mahfooz]


The hadeeth,

 

"whosoever starts in Islaam a good practice (sunnah), he gets the reward of it and the reward of all those that act on it. And whosoever starts in Islaam an evil practice (sunnah), he gets the evil of it and the evil of all those that act on it."
(Muslim)

The evidence they derive from this is that people can invent new practices in Islaam that are either good or bad. But were they to take this hadeeth in it's full context then it would not be possible to infer such a thing.

The context of the hadeeth states that a group of poor people came to the Prophet (SAW) so he asked those around him to give charity, but no-one came forward - so much so that signs of anger could be discerned on the face of Muhammad (SAW), so one of the companions stepped forward and gave charity and then the Prophet (SAW) mentioned the above statement.

Firstly: the word sunnah used in the hadeeth must be understood in it's linguistic sense (i.e. practice) not it's sharee'ah sense (i.e. the life example of Muhammad (SAW)) because otherwise it would imply that there is something bad in the sunnah.

Secondly: This companion who gave charity, did not do anything new, for giving charity had been legislated from the very early days of Islaam as the Makki Surahs prove, rather he was simply implementing an already legislated matter. So the statement of the Prophet (SAW), 'a good sunnah' was said at a time when the people were reluctant to give charity, so one man gave it and then others followed him - i.e. he RENEWED a sunnah that was being neglected - this is the meaning of 'good practice' - renewing an already existing sunnah.

Hence we do not stick just to the specific occurrence in the hadeeth, but we generalise it's intent as it's wording is general as is established in usul. The intent of this hadeeth is renewing the Sunnah at a time that it has been neglected. This is why the early scholars of Islaam included this hadeeth under chapter heading such as, "the reward of the one who renews the sunnah" [as done by the 4th century Imaam al-Laalikaa'ee in his encyclopaedic work detailing the belief of Ahlus Sunnah, 'Sharh Usul I'tiqaad Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa'ah']

Thirdly: the meaning of 'bad sunnah' is to be understood in a similar vein, i.e. the one who renews an evil act will get it's evil…. and the Prophet (SAW) gave the example of the two sons of Adam one killing the other, so the one who killed got the sin of that action and the sin of all those that would kill in the future without their sins decreasing. And killing had been forbidden from the time of the first Prophet (AS) to the last (SAW).

Fourthly: the hadeeth uses the terms 'good' and 'bad', and from what has preceded it is clear that Islaam has already defined in it's totality all that it is good and bad, and if we were to say otherwise we would then be accusing the religion of incompleteness and deficiency. This is why Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee rejected Istihsaan (declaring something to be good that was not already done so by the Sharee'ah) by saying, "whosoever declares something good has declared it part of the Sharee'ah"

courtesy of www.islaam.net)