In the name of Allah ,the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful



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Kitaab At-Tawheed, Chapter: 15

Intercession

Allah (swt ) says:

" And warn by it, those who fear to be gathered to their Lord: Besides Him they will have no protector nor intercessor: That they may become pious, God-fearing" (Qur'an 6:51)

Allah (swt ), Most High commands His Prophet, Muhammad, (saas ) in this verse to inform and strike fear into those who are convinced of the truth of the Day of Resurrection: That they will stand before their Lord on that Day, and that they will find no helper, nor intercessor to intercede between them and Allah's punishment, that hopefully, they will fulfill the commands of Allah (swt ) and abstain from that which He has forbidden.

Benefits Derived From This Verse

1. That warnings profit not except those who believe.

2. Confirmation of the Resurrection.

3. That there will be no intercession except and until its conditions have been fulfilled.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

That the verse proves that no intercession will be excepted unless and until its conditions have been met.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

That the verse proves that none can intercede on his own initiative; therefore, to seek such intercession from one of Allah's creatures is an act of major Shirk. Likewise, seeking intercession from idols which their worshippers claim can intercede with Allah (swt ) on their behalf is a Shirk.

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Allah (swt ), says:

" Say to Allah belongs all intercession. To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and to Him you shall all return" (Qur'an 39:44)

Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, commands His Prophet, Muhammad (saas ) in this verse to inform the people, whatever their philosophy or creed, that the right to grant every manner of intercession is purely and solely for Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful, and none may contend with Him in it, nor can any intercede except by His permission; then He affirms that He is the One and Only Disposer of affairs in the heavens and the earth and all that they contain and that there is no escaping from the Day when all mankind will be returned to Allah (swt ); then those who took others as intercessors will know the futility of their deeds.

Benefits Derived From This Verse

1. The plurality of intercession.

2. That intercession is the dominion of Allah and none may intercede unless He Wills it and is pleased by the one for whom intercession is made.

3. Confirmation of the truth of the Resurrection.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

That the verse proves that every kind of intercession is the dominion of Allah (swt ) and it will not be granted to anyone unless Allah (swt ) permits it and Is pleased by the one for whom intercession is sought.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

That the verse confirms that intercession is the dominion of Allah (swt ), to which none other than He is entitled. Therefore, seeking it from other than Allah (swt ) is an act of major Shirk, including those idols which people worship, claiming that they are doing so in order to obtain intercession.

Important Note

Allah's Words: " to Allah belongs all intercession" Prove that intercession is of many different kinds and the scholars have mentioned eight of them:

1. Major Intercession: It is that which will fall upon the shoulders of the Prophet Muhammad (saas ) after all the other Prophets and Messengers have refused to accept it on the Day of Resurrection: The people will ask all of the previous Prophets and Messengers to intercede with Allah (swt ) on their behalf but they will refuse, saying: "Myself! Myself!" Then they will come to the Messenger of Allah (saas ), and he will accept, and go to his Rabb and prostrate before Him for as long as He wills, then he will be given permission to raise his head and intercede on behalf of the believing people, and none other than he (swt ) shall be given this right and privilege.

2. Intercession for the People of Paradise: This has been confirmed by the long Hadith of Abu Hurairah (ra ) which has been narrated by Bukhari and Muslim and which mentions that the Prophet (saas ) will intercede with Allah (swt ) on behalf of the People of Paradise that they may be allowed to enter therein.

3. Intercession for the Disobedient Muslims: He (saas ) will intercede with his Lord on behalf of those Muslims who may have committed sins of disobedience to their Rabb, Almighty, that they may not be placed in the Fire.

4. Intercession for the Disobedient People of Tawheed: He (saas ) will intercede with Allah (swt ) on behalf of those Muslims who have entered the Hell-fire because of their sins, that they may be removed from it. The authentic narration concerning this has been widely reported and all of the Companions and Ahl As-Sunnah are agreed upon it.

5. Intercession for Increasing the Reward of the People of Paradise: The Messenger of Allah (saas ) will intercede on behalf of a people from amongst the People of Paradise, that they may have their reward increased and their status elevated; and there is none who disputes this.

6. Intercession of the Prophet (saas ) for his Uncle: He (saas ) will intercede on behalf of his uncle Abu Talib, that his punishment in the Hell-fire may be lightened.

7. Intercession of the Children: Those children who died while still below the age of reason will intercede on behalf of their believing parents.

8. Intercession of Some of the Believers for Others: It is authentically confirmed that some of the Believers will intercede on behalf of their believing brothers.

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Allah (swt ), says:

" Allah! There is none has the right to be worshipped but He, the Living, the Ever-lasting. Neither slumber or sleep overtakes him. His are all things in the heavens and the earth. Who is it that can intercede in His presence, except as He permits? He knows what is before them and what is behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of His Knowledge, except as He Wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them, for He is the Most High, Most Great" (Qur'an 2:255)

Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High informs us in this verse that there is none who has the right to be worshipped besides Him, because He is the Living, Whose Life is complete and without beginning or end, Who gives life to His creatures, but is in no need of anything and is afflicted by nothing which affects His slaves, such as tiredness, sleep, hunger etc. His Lordship is complete and all-encompassing: His is the Dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is in them and none can gainsay Him in anything concerning them, including the matter of intercession, and none possesses power to intercede except as He Wills and permits, and whose intercession pleases Him. And He informs us that none encompasses anything of His Knowledge except Him whom He blesses and grants knowledge, whether Revelation or other wisdom. And He tells us that His Kursi1 extends over all of the heavens and the earth and that guarding and protecting them causes Him no fatigue or discomfort, for He (swt ) is the Most High, above all of His creation, and He is the Most Great, Greater than all others who claim greatness.

Benefits Derived From This Verse

1. Affirmation of five of Allah's Names: (i) Allah (swt ); (ii) Al-Hayy (the Living); (iii) Al-Qayyoom (the Ever-lasting); (iv) Al-'Ali (the Most High); (v) Al-'Azeem (The Most Great).

2. That Allah (swt ) does not succumb to slumber or sleep, for He is in no need of them; they are attributes of His creatures which indicate imperfection and He is far above any imperfection.

3. That none may intercede with Him on his own initiative but only as He permits.

4. Evidence of Allah's Will.

5. Confirmation of intercession after Allah (swt ) permits it.

6. Proof of the existence of Allah's Kursi.

7. Evidence of Allah's Complete Power and Knowledge.

8. Affirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of being Above, both literally and metaphorically.

9. Evidence of Allah's Greatness.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

That the verse negates any intercession by Allah's creatures on their own initiative without His permission.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

That it negates any intercession by Allah's creatures of their own volition, and therefore seeking such intercession from other than Allah (swt ), is an act of major Shirk including idols which their worshipers claim can intercede with Allah (swt ) on their behalf.

Important Note

This blessed verse has been described in authentic Hadith as the greatest verse in the Qur'an, and it is reported that whoever recites it in the evening, will be protected from Satan until he wakes in the morning, and also that whoever recites it in the morning will be protected from Satan until the evening, in accordance with His Will.

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Allah (swt ), says:

" And no matter how many be angels in the heavens, their intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He Wills and pleases" (Qur'an 53:26)

Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that in the heavens there are hosts of angels, but in spite of their large numbers, and their elevated status in the sight of Allah (swt ), they cannot benefit anyone unless Allah (swt ) grants them leave to intercede and is Pleased with their intercession.

Benefits Derived From This Verse

1. Proof that all of the heavens are inhabited by angels.

2. Evidence that intercession will only be granted on two conditions: (i) That Allah has permitted the intercession, and (ii) that He is pleased with the one for whom intercession is sought. And Allah is not Pleased with any save the People of Tawheed as is confirmed by the Hadith: "On behalf of whom will your intercession be most pleasing (to Allah), oh, Messenger of Allah?" He replied: Him who says: Laa ilaaha illal-laah, sincerely, from his heart." 2

3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Will.

4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Pleasure.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

That it proves the negation of intercession by every created thing unless two conditions are fulfilled: (i) That Allah's permission is granted to the intercessor, and (ii) that Allah (swt ) is pleased with the one for whom intercession is sought.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

That the verse proves that intercession is not granted except after Allah (swt ) permits it and is pleased with the person for whom intercession is sought, which proves that intercession belongs to Allah (swt ) and therefore, seeking it from other than Him is an act of major Shirk, especially including the worship of idols in the belief that they can intercede with Allah (swt ).

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Allah (swt ), says:

" Say: "Call upon those whom you claim [as gods] besides Allah: They have no power, not the weight of an atom - in the heavens or on the earth. No share have they therein, nor is any of them a helper to Allah. No intercession can avail with Him, except for those for whom He has granted permission. So much so that, when terror is removed from their hearts, they will say: "That which is true and just; and He is the Most High, Most Great."" (Qur'an 34:22-23)

In these verses, Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, challenges the polytheists to ask their objects of worship which they have set up as partners with Allah (swt ), for they will not be able to grant any benefit or protect anyone from harm because they possess not an atom's weight of goodness or evil in the heavens or the earth, nor do they have any share in the heavens or the earth, nor are they helpers for Allah (swt ), nor intercessors. Not even the angels or any other of Allah's creations possess the power to intercede on behalf of anyone except by His permission. Then Allah (swt ) makes plain that the angels, who are the most powerful of Allah's creatures, fall down in fear and submission to Allah (swt ) and His aweful Majesty. Then, when the fear is removed from their hearts, they ask one another concerning what their Rabb, the Almighty, the All-powerful has Said; and some of them answer that it is the firm truth, and He (swt ) is the Most High, the Most Great.

Benefits Derived From These Verses

1. Negation of all the polytheists' claims regarding the idols they worship - that they possess any power or dominion in the heavens or the earth, or that they have any share in that, or in Allah's Help, or that they have the power of intercession with Allah (swt ).

2. Confirmation of intercession after Allah (swt ) permits it and negation of it without His permission.

3. Evidence of the awesomeness of Allah (swt ) and His Greatness.

4. Affirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Speech.

5. Confirmation of two of Allah's Names: (i) Al-'Ali, and (ii) Al-Kabeer.

Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of the Chapter

That they prove the negation of intercession without Allah's leave.

Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of Tawheed

That the verses prove the negation of intercession for all of Allah's creatures on their own initiative, and that granting intercession is the exclusive right of Allah (swt ), and therefore, to seek it from other than Allah (swt ) is an act of Shirk. This includes the worship of idols which their worshipers claim have the power of intercession.

Important Note

Abul `Abbas said: "Allah (swt ) has negated all that the polytheists do in worship: Such as the belief that any besides Allah (swt ) possesses sovereignty or has any share in sovereignty, or aid, so that naught remains except intercession; and He has made plain that intercession is not possible except by His permission for the intercessor and the Hadith of Major Intercession also supports this, for in it is (reported the Words of Allah (swt ) on the Day of Resurrection: "Raise your head and ask and it shall be given; intercede and it will be accepted." (Narrated by Bukhari)

And it will not be accepted unless Allah (swt ) is Pleased with the one for whom intercession is sought, as is proved by the Words of Him (swt ), Most High:

" And they offer no intercession except for those with whom He is well-pleased" - and Allah (swt ) is not well-Pleased except with the people of Tawheed as evidenced by the Hadith: On behalf of whom will your intercession be most Pleasing (to Allah swt ), Oh, Messenger of Allah (saas )? He replied: "Him who says: Laa illaha illallah, sincerely, from his heart."

Footnotes

1. Kursi: It has been authentically reported that the Kursi is the resting place of the Feet of the Beneficent, and it is the largest of all created things after the 'Arsh (Throne).
2. Narrated by Bukhari, on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra)_.

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