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Kitaab At-Tawheed, Chapter: 33

Part of Belief in Allah Consists of Patience in the
Face of All That Allah Has Ordained for Us

Allah (swt ), says:

" No kind of calamity occurs except by Allah's leave: And whoever believes in Allah, Allah will guide his heart [aright]: For Allah knows all things" (Qur'an 64:11)

Allah (swt ), Most High, informs us in this verse that no calamity, whether loss of wealth, bereavement, or other, occurs unless Allah (swt ) has written it and ordained it, and that whoever truly believes this, will most assuredly be guided by Allah (swt ), so that he accepts and bears with equanimity the trials and tribulations of life and acknowledges Allah's Wisdom, for Allah (swt ) knows what is best for His slaves, and He (swt ) is Most Kind, Most Merciful.

Benefits Derived From This Verse

1. That evil, like good, is ordained by Allah.

2. Evidence of the blessing of faith, and that it results in right guidance of the heart and an upright character.

3. Evidence of the all-encompassing nature of Allah's Knowledge.

4. That the reward of goodness is goodness.

5. That the guidance of success comes only from Allah, Most High.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

That it proves that patience and equanimity, in the face of Allah's Ordainments are signs of faith in Allah (swt ).

Important Note

(a) The Arabic word, sabr means, linguistically speaking, prevention, while in religious parlance, it means preventing or restraining oneself from succumbing to depression or anxiety and guarding the tongue from complaint and angry words, and guarding the limbs from forbidden deeds, such as slapping the cheeks, tugging at the hair and tearing the clothes.

(b) Sabr may be divided into three categories: (i) Patiently persevering in obedience to Allah (swt ); (ii) refraining from what Allah (swt ) has forbidden; (iii) patiently forbearing in the face of calamities which Allah (swt ) may ordain for us.

..ooOOoo..

`Alqamah said: "He (i.e. the person referred to in the verse) is the one who, when calamity strikes him, knows that it is from his Rabb and accepts it with equanimity and submits (himself to Allah's Will.")

Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter

That it shows that `Alqamah considered that sabr in the face of calamity and calm acceptance are signs of faith.

..ooOOoo..

In Muslim's Saheeh, it is reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra ) that Allah's Messenger (saas ) said: "Two traits found in people are signs of disbelief: Defaming a person's lineage and bewailing the deceased."

Because Islam came to abolish all of the vile customs of the Jahiliyyah, which are incompatible with the lofty principles of Islam, the Prophet (saas ) informed the Companions that defaming another's ancestors and excessive mourning of the dead are traits of disbelief from the days of ignorance which will remain in this Ummah and this is a warning to us, for these two traits cause evil to the individual and to the community: Slandering another's ancestors is bound to cause hurt to and unjustified distress to that person. As for bewailing the deceased, this provokes renewed grief and fear on the part of the bereaved and shows lack of acceptance of Allah's Qadr and it is often accompanied by lying, as they indulge in exaggerated eulogies of the deceased and raise him above his true status.

Benefits Derived From This Hadith

1. The forbiddance of slandering another's ancestors and of bewailing the dead.

2. That these two traits will remain in this Ummah.

3. That a person may possess some of these traits of disbelief without being a disbeliever.

4. That Islam has prohibited everything that might lead to division in society.

Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

That the Hadith proves the forbiddance of bewailing the dead, for this connotes a lack of forbearance and acceptance of Allah's Qadr which is a necessary requisite of the true Believer.

..ooOOoo..

It is narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Ibn Mas'ood (ra ) in a marfoo' form: "He who slaps his cheeks and tears his clothes and makes supplications of the Jahiliyyah is not one of us."

Because Islam preaches the noblest of ideals and because it ennobles the soul, it has forbidden all manner of excessive mourning of the dead such as slapping the cheeks, tearing the clothes and making the supplications of the days of ignorance; 1 and it is made clear to us that such actions are completely un-Islamic, because they cause unnecessary and prolonged grief to the bereaved, reflect a lack of acceptance of Allah's Qadr and keep alive the evil customs of the Jahiliyyah which Islam came to destroy.

Benefits Derived From This Hadith

1. The forbiddance of slapping one's cheeks and tearing one's clothes in anguish over the death of a loved one.

2. The falseness and futility of the customs of the Jahiliyyah except those which are in conformity with Islaamic Law and are confirmed by the Qur'an or the Sunnah, such as hospitality to the guest and the like.

Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

That it proves the forbiddance of slapping one's cheeks, tearing one's clothes and making the supplications of the Jahiliyyah.

Important Note

It is permissible to weep for the dead if it is due to genuine feelings of sadness and compassion, free from all traces of anger and hysteria.

..ooOOoo..

On the authority of Anas it is reported that the Prophet (saas ) said: "When Allah (swt ) wills good for His slave, He hastens to punish him in this life and when He wills evil for His slave, He withholds punishing him for his sins until he comes before Him on the Day of Resurrection." 2

Allah's Messenger informs us in this Hadith that sometimes Allah (swt ) afflicts a person with calamity in order to purify him of his sins, which otherwise, might cause him to be punished in the Hereafter, in order that he might on that Day receive the record of his deeds in his right hand and be among the successful. Alternatively, Allah (swt ) may withhold punishment from a person, not because He loves him or honours him, but when he is called forth on the Day of Reckoning, he will bear a heavy burden of sins and he will receive the full punishment of those sins; and Allah (swt ) grants His Favour to whom He Wills and punishes whom He Wills with justice; and He Will not be asked about what He does, but they will be asked about what they did.

Benefits Derived From This Hadith

1. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Will, in a manner befitting His Majesty.

2. That good and evil are from Allah's Qadr.

3. That the trials and tribulations to which the Believer is subjected are signs of goodness, so long as they are borne with patience and without resorting to forbidden acts or abandoning one's obligations.

4. It is incumbent upon the Muslim to fear the continuation of blessings and good health, lest they betoken that his sins will not be wiped out by trials in this life.

5. The obligation to think well of Allah (swt ) concerning the calamities which He might ordain for us.

6. It does not necessarily follow that when Allah (swt ) gives us something good, that He is pleased with us.

Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

That it proves that whoever truly believes in Allah (swt ), will bear the trials and tribulations which Allah (swt ) ordains for him with patience and equanimity for he believes that they bode goodness for him.

..ooOOoo..

The Prophet (saas ) said: "Verily, the greatness of the reward is tied to the greatness of the trial: When Allah (swt ) loves a people, he puts them to trial. Whoever accepted it, will enjoy Allah's Pleasure and whoever is displeased with it, will incur Allah's Displeasure." 3

The Prophet (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that the Believer may be afflicted by calamity in this world, such as loss of wealth, bereavement etc., but that Allah (swt ) will reward him for these calamities if he bears them patiently, and He (saas ) tells us also that the more a person's trials and tribulations increase, the more his reward with Allah (swt ) increases and that trials are a sign of Allah's Love for the Believer, not His Anger and that Allah's Ordainment and His Qadr will be implemented and that whoever patiently perseveres in the face of adversity and accepts it, will incur Allah's Pleasure and His Reward, while whoever is angry at what Allah (swt ) has ordained for him and dislikes it, will incur Allah's Displeasure and His punishment which will be more than suffice him.

Benefits Derived From This Hadith

1. That afflictions wipe out sins, so long as the afflicted does not abandon his obligations or commit forbidden acts.

2. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Love, in a manner befitting His Majesty.

3. That the trials to which the Believer is subjected are signs of faith.

4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Pleasure, in a manner befitting His Majesty.

5. The virtue of accepting Allah's Qadr and His Ordainments with patience and equanimity.

6. The forbiddance of anger at Allah's Qadr and His Ordainments.

Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

That the Hadith forbids anger and despair in the face of Allah's Ordainments, and this shows that patient perseverance in the face of trials and tribulations is a part of faith.

Footnotes

1. Such as: "Woe to me!" or "May I be destroyed!" etc.
2. Something very similar to this was narrated by Imam Ahmad, on the authority of 'Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal.
3. Narrated by At-Tirmizi.

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