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What Is the Qur'an?
The Qur'an, the Torah, the Gospel are Scriptures of Allah that He sent down to His Messengers, peace be upon them. The "Qur'an" is Allah's speech, not a created thing that may perish nor is it an attribute of any created thing. Gabriel brought down the Qur'an to Muhammad, peace be upon him, bit by bit as circumstances warranted over a period of twenty-three years. The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, would memorize the verses he received and recite them to the companions who happened to be with him and order them to write the verses down immediately.
Muhammad, peace be upon him, himself used to keep a copy of the revealed portions in his house. The Qur'an, the last of Allah's Scriptures, is divided into 114 surah (chapters) of unequal length. It is one of the fundamental sources of Islamic teachings. Allah revealed some of the Qur'an's suwar and verses in Makkah, and the rest He revealed in Madinah. The Makkan suwar and verses deal mainly with the issues of aqeedah, such as tawhid, the belief in the Oneness of Allah, the signs of the existence of Allah, resurrection, life after death, or the Day of Resurrection.
The Prophet, peace be upon him, laid great emphasis on the Oneness of Allah, as did all the Prophets and Messengers of Allah before him, beginning with Adam and ending with Muhammad, peace be upon them all. Suwar revealed in Madinah dealt with the actions of the individuals and every aspect of life, including forms of worship.
Aqeedah is a religious tenet upon which one's mind and heart is firmly settled, and to which one holds and adheres.