(THE SEALED NECTAR)
Memoirs of the Noble Prophet
Author: Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
Jamia Salafia - India- .
Translated by: Issam Diab .
The Third Stage
The third and last stage of the life of the Messenger embodies the fruitful results of his call to Islam, which were the consequences of long-timed holy fights in the way of Allah (Jihad), troubles, toil, disturbances, trials and a lot of bloody conflicts and battles, which lasted for over twenty years.
The conquest of Makkah was considered the most serious profit achieved by Muslims during those years. For it affected the course of events and consequently altered the Arabs's whole life. It was a decisive distinction between preconquest and post-conquest periods. For Quraish, at that time, was in the eyes of Arabs the defenders and helpers of Arabs. Other Arabs are only their ancillaries. The submission of Quraish is, therefore, estimated to be a final elimination of paganism in the Arabian Peninsula.
This stage can be divided into two main phases:
The phase of: (1) holy wars and fighting.
(2) the tribes and people's race to embrace Islam.
Being so close and rather inseparable, the two phases of this stage intervene in such a way that a happening of one phase occurs during the progress of the other. However, we have preferred ' for expository purposes ' to deal with these two phases distinctively. The fighting phase was given the priority in order, due to the fact that it is more intimate and fit than the other.
The conquest of Makkah which came forth as a consequence of a swift blow astounded both the Arabs and other tribes who realized that they were doomed and had to submit to the new situation as a fait accompli. Some of the fierce, powerful proud tribes did not submit and favoured resistance. Ahead of these were the septs of Hawazin and Thaqif. Nasr, Jashm and Sa�d bin Bakr and people of Bani Hilal � all of whom of Qais �Ailan. They thought that they were too mighty to admit or surrender to such a victory. So they met Malik bin �Awf An-Nasri and made up their mind to proceed fighting against the Muslims.
The Enemy�s March and their Encampment at Awtas:
When Malik bin �Awf � the general leader � decided to march and fight the Muslims, he made his countrypeople take their wealth, women and children with them to Awtas � which is a valley in Hawazin land and is quite near Hunain. It differs from Hunain in its being adjacent to Dhi-Al-Majaz which is around ten miles from Makkah in �Arafat�s direction.
The War-experienced Man wrongs the Leader�s Judgement:
As soon as they had camped in Awtas, people crowded round Malik. The old sane Duraid bin As-Simmah, who was well-known as a war-experienced man, and who was among those who gathered round Malik, asked: "What valley are we in?" "In Awtas," they said. "What a good course it is for horses! It is neither a sharp pointed height nor a loosed soiled plain. What? Why do I hear camels� growling, the donkeys� braying, the children's cries and the sheep bleating?" asked Duraid. They said: "Malik bin �Awf had made people bring their women, properties and children with them." So he called Malik and asked him what made him do such a thing. Malik said that his aim was to have everybody�s family and properties around them so that they fight fiercely to protect them." "I swear by Allah that you are nothing but a shepherd," answered Duraid, "Do you believe that there is anything whatsoever, can stand in the way of a defeated one or stop him from fleeing? If you win the battle you avail nothing but a man with a sword and a spear; but if you lose you will bring disgrace on your people and properties," then he resumed his talk and went on wondering about some septs and their leaders. "O Malik, thrusting the distinguished people of Hawazin into the battlefield will avail you nothing. Raise them up to where they can be safe. Then make the young people mount their horses and fight. If you win, those whom you tarried will follow you, but if you were the loser it would be a loss of a battle, but your kinsmen, people and properties would not be lost."
But Malik, the general leader, refused this suggestion. "By Allah," he said, "I will not do such a thing. You must have grown a senile. Hawazin have to obey me, or else I will lean my body against this sword so that it penetrates through my back." He rejected any sort of contribution of Duraid�s in that concern.
"We obey you," said his people, Duraid consequently said: "Today is a day that I have not missed but surely I will not be tempted to witness."
Reconnoitering the Weapons of the Messenger of Allah :
The spies that Malik had already dispatched to spy Muslim forces, returned with their limbs cut off. "Woe unto you! What happened to you?" Said Malik. They said: "We have seen distinguished people on spotted horsebacks. What you see, would not have happened if we had been firmly together."
Reconnoitering the Enemy�s Weapons:
News about the enemy's marching were conveyed to the Messenger of Allah , so he sent out Al-Aslami with orders to mix with people, stay with them so that he would be able to know their news and to convey it to the Messenger of Allah when he turns back. That was exactly what he managed to do.
The Messenger of All�h leaves Makkah for Hunain:
On Shawwal, the nineteenth, the captive day, the Messenger of Allah left Makkah accompanied by twelve thousand Muslims. Ten thousand of those had previously shared in Makkah Conquest. A great number of the other two thousand, who were Makkans, had recently embraced Islam. That march was on the nineteenth day of his conquest to Makkah. He borrowed a hundred armours with their equipment from Safwan bin Omaiyah. He appointed �Itab bin Usaid as a governor over Makkah. When it was evening time, a horseman came to the Messenger of Allah and said: "I have climbed up so and so mountains and came across Hawazin with their riding camels, livestock and sheep. Hawazin wholly were gathered together there." The Messenger of Allah smiled then and said: "They will all be Muslims spoils tomorrow, if Allah will." That night Anas bin Abi Murthid Al-Ghanawi volunteered to guard.
On their way to Hunain they saw a great green Nabk plant, that was called Dhat-Anwat (the one with suspenders). That was because the Arabs used to hang their weapons on it, slay beasts under it and keep to it. So some of army members asked the Messenger of Allah to make them a Nabk with suspenders as the one they had. "Allah is the Greatest of all!" He said, "I swear by the One in Whose Hand is Muhammad's soul, that you have just said what the people of Moses said to him. They said "Make us a god as the one they have." Surely you are ignorant people. These are Sunnah, but you will follow and comply with the modes of life of those who preceded you."
Seeing how great in number the army was, some of them said: "We shall not be defeated." Their statement sounded hard upon the Messenger of Allah .
The Islamic Army stunned the Archers and the Attackers:
On Wednesday night the tenth of Shawwal, the Muslim army arrived at Hunain. Malik bin �Awf, who had previously entered the valley by night, gave orders to his army to hide inside the valley and lurk for the Muslims on roads, entrances, narrow hiding places. His orders to his men were to hurl stones at Muslims whenever they caught sight of them and then to make a one-man attack against them.
At early dawn the Messenger of Allah started mobilizing his army and distributing posts and flags to people. In the dark and just before dawn the Muslims moved towards Hunain Valley. They started descending into it unaware of the presence of an enemy lurking for them inside the valley. So at the moment they were camping, arrows began showering intensively at them, whereas the enemy's battalions started a fierce attack against the Muslims, who had to retreat in disorder and utter confusion. It was such a shatteringly defeat that Abu Sufyan bin Harb, who had recently embraced Islam, said that their retreat would not stop till they got to the Red Sea. Jablah or Kildah bin Al-Junaid commented on that by saying: "Surely magic has grown inactive today."
The Messenger of Allah turned to the right and said: "Come on, people! I am the Messenger of Allah. I am Muhammad, the son of Abdullah." Those who stoodfast by him were only few Emigrants and some of his kinsmen. The matchless bravery of the Prophet was then brought to light. He went on and on in his attempts to make his mule standfast in the face of the disbelievers while saying loudly:
I am the (grand) son of Abdul Muttalib."
However, Abu Sufyan, who was then holding the rein of the Prophet's mule, and Al-Abbas, who was holding its stirrup; were endeavouring to make it halt. The Messenger of Allah dismounted and asked his Lord to render him help.
Mulsims return to the Battlefield, and the fierceness of the Fight:
The Messenger of Allah ordered his uncle Al-Abbas who was a sonorous voiced man to call out on the followers. As loudly as he could, Al-Abbas shouted: "Where are the lancers?" "By Allah," Al-Abbas said, "Upon hearing my voice calling them back, they turned round to the battlefield as if they had been oryxes (wild cows) tending towards their calves."
"Here we are, at your service. Here we are." They said. There you see them trying to stop their camels and reverse to the battle. He who was unable to force his camel to turn back, would take his armour, fling it round his neck, and hastily dismount his camel with his weapon in his hand letting his camel move freely and run towards the voice source. Voices would grow louder and louder till a hundred of them gathered round the Prophet and resumed the fight.
Those who were called out upon next were Al-Ansar, the Helpers, "O, folks of Al-Ansar! Folks of Al-Ansar!"
The last group to be called out upon were Bani Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj. Muslims battalions poured successively into the battlefield in the same manner that they had left it. The stamina of both parties was superb. Both of them stoodfast and fought fiercely. The Messenger of Allah was so eagerly and furiously watching the battle that he said:
Picking up a handful of earth, he hurled it at their faces while saying:
Their eyes were thick with dust and the enemy began to retreat in utter confusion.
Reverse of Fortunes and the Enemy�s utter Defeat:
Few hours had elapsed since the earth-handful was hurled at the enemy's faces, when they were shatteringly defeated. About seventy men of Thaqif alone were killed, and the Muslims plundered all their riding camels, weapons and cattle.
Allah, Glory is to Him, alluded to this sudden change in the Quran when He said:
Hot Pursuit of the Enemy:
After their defeat, some enemy troops headed for Taif, others to Nakhlah and Awtas. A group of Muslims headed by Abu �Amir Al-Ash� ari, were despatched to chase the enemy, some skirmishes took place during which Abu �Amir was killed.
A similar battalion of horsemen pursued the idolaters who threaded the track to Nakhlah and caught up with Duraid bin As-Simmah, who was killed by Rabi�a bin Rafi�. After collecting the booty, the Messenger of Allah left for Taif to face the greatest number of the defeated idolaters. The booty was six thousand captives, twenty four thousand camels; over forty thousand sheep and four thousand silver ounces. The Messenger of Allah gave orders that booty should be confined at Al-J�iranah and ordained Mas�ud bin �Amr Al-Ghifari to be in charge of it. It was only when he was entirely free from Taif Campaign, that one of the captives As-Shaim�, the daughter of Al-Harith As-Sadiya, the Messenger's foster sister was brought to the Messenger of Allah , she introduced herself to him. Upon recognizing her by a certain mark, he honoured her, spread for her his garment and seated her on it. He was graceful and released her and made her turn back to her people.
Taif Campaign is in fact an extension of Hunain Ghazwah; that is because the majority of the defeated troops of Hawazin and Thaqif went into Taif with the general commander � Malik bin �Awf An-Nasri � and fortified themselves within it. So upon finishing with Hunain Invasion, he gathered the booty at Al-Ji�ranah in the very month (i.e. Shawwal) and in the eighth year A.H.
A vanguard battalion of a thousand men led by Khalid bin Al-Waleed marched towards At-Taif. Whereas the Messenger of Allah proceeded passing through Nakhlah Al-Yamaniyah, Qarn Al-Manazil and through Laiyah. At Laiyah there was a castle that belonged to Malik bin �Awf, so the Messenger of Allah gave orders to have it destroyed. He resumed his march till he got to Taif. There he dismounted, camped near its castle and laid siege to the castle inhabitants; but not for long.
How long the siege continued, is still a matter of disagreement. It however stands between 10-20 days.
A lot of arrow-shooting and rock-hurling occurred during the siege. For as soon as the Muslims laid siege round the castle, its people started shooting arrows against them. The arrows were so intense and fierce that they looked as if they had been locusts on the move. A number of Muslims were wounded and twelve were killed.
To be far from the arrow-range, the Muslims had to ascend to a higher location and camped on i.e. to what is now called At-Taif Mosque. The Prophet set up a mangonel and shelled the castle. Eventually a gap was made in the castle wall, through which a number of Muslims managed to pass into the castle, sheltered by a wooden tank, with the purpose of setting fire into it. Anyway, the enemy poured down molten hot iron on them. Affected by this the Muslims stepped out of the tank and were again exposed to arrow shooting and consequently some of them were killed.
To force the enemy to surrender, the Prophet tended to a war policy of burning and cutting the enemy's crops. His order was to cut their vineyards and burn them. Seeing that the Muslims started rapidly cutting and burning their vines, they implored the Prophet to stop and have mercy on them for the sake of Allah and out of kinship motives. So the Prophet agreed. When the caller of the Messenger of Allah called out unto people saying "He whosoever descends and steps out of the castle is free." Twenty-three men came out. One of them was Abu Bakrah who tied himself to a wall and let himself down by means of a small wheel, that would normally be used for drawing up water from a well. The way he let himself down made the Prophet nickname him "Abu Bakrah", i.e. the man with the wheel. The Messenger of Allah set them all free and entrusted each one of them to a Muslim to care about their living affairs, which was too hard for the castle folkspeople to bear.
Seeing that the siege lasted too long and that the castle was immune and could stand any siege (for they had already stored a supply that suffices for over a year) and that the Muslims were suffering day by day from arrow-shots and heated iron hooks, the Messenger of Allah consulted Nawfal bin Mu��wiyah Ad-Daili about that. He said: "They are like a fox hiding inside its burrow. If you stoodfast at it you would catch it, but if you parted with it, no harm would afflict you." The Messenger of Allah decided to lift the siege and depart. Umar bin Al-Khattab, who was ordered by the Prophet to notify people, said to them "If Allah will, we are leaving the castle and going back tomorrow." As it was too hard for the Muslims to go back and leave the castle unconquered they complained saying, "Should we go away while the castle is still unopened?" His reply was: "Then, start fighting in the morning." In the morning they fought and were wounded. So when he repeated this statement: "If Allah will, we are leaving the castle and going back tomorrow", they were pleased and carried out the order submissively and started moving, which made the Messenger of Allah laugh.
As soon as they mounted and started moving the Messenger said:
When the Messenger of Allah was asked to invoke Allah against Thaqif, he said:
The Distribution of the Booty at Al-Ji�ranah:
Upon returning and lifting the siege in Taif, the Messenger of Allah had stayed over ten nights at Al-Ji�ranah before starting to distribute the booty. Distribution delay was due to the Prophet's hope that Hawazin's delegation might arrive and announce their repentance and consequently reclaim their loss. Seeing that none of them arrived, he started dividing the booty so as to calm down the tribes� chiefs and the celebrities of Makkah. The first to receive booty and the ones who obtained the greatest number of shares were the people who had recently embraced Islam.
Abu Sufyan bin Harb was given a hundred camels and forty (gold) ounces and yet he said, "What about my son, Yazeed's Share?" So he was given the same quantity for his son as well. But yet he exclaimed: "And what about the share of Mu��wiyah, my second son?" So the Prophet gave Mu��wiyah as much as he gave his father and brother. Hakeem bin Hizam was given a hundred camels, but he was given a hundred more when he demanded. Safwan bin Omaiyah was given three hundred camels - a hundred camels at each time. It is thus mentioned in Shif�, Book by Qadi Iyadh. The Prophet gave Al-Harith bin Harith bin Kilda a hundred camels. He also gave some chiefs of Quraish and other clans a hundred camels; he gave others fifty and some others had forty.
Eventually it was spread among people that "Muhammad grants generously and fears not to grow poor." This made bedouins gather around him expecting to be given some wealth. They were so many that they forced the Prophet to seek refuge against a tree and they even took away his garment, "O people!" He said, "Give me back my garment! For I swear by the One in Whose Hand is Muhammad's soul, that if I had as many numerous camels as the number of Tihama trees, I would distribute them among you. You know quite well that I am neither mean nor coward or a liar." Standing by his camel he plucked out a hair of his camels hump and held it between his two fingers, lifted it up and said: "O people, I swear by Allah that I get nothing but one-fifth of your booty, and this very fifth goes back to you."
As soon as he had given the new converts, the Messenger of Allah ordered Zaid bin Thabit to fetch the booty and summon people. Then he ordained shares to people. A footman's share was four camels and forty sheep, and a horseman would take twelve camels and a hundred and twenty sheep. This distribution of booty was based on a wise policy. In this world there are lots of people who know the truth only when it comes through their stomachs and they do not recognize it if it comes through their brains. The similitude of such people is as the guidance of an animal to its herd by means of a bunch of clover held at a constant distance off its mouth. The animal would try all the time to catch it, so it would eventually go into the herd safely. In the same way you have to do various kinds of temptations to make certain kind of people familiarize Islam and be pleased with.
The Helpers (Al-Ansar) are furious at the Messenger of All�h :
At first the Prophet's policy of distribution was uncomprehended by many a man. Therefore sharp-tongued people started expressing their objections. The Helpers were among those who were afflicted by this policy. They were deprived of Hunain gifts though they had been the ones who were summoned at Hunain hard times and they were the first to rush to fight with the Messenger of Allah and standfast till the defeat turned into victory. Now here they are watching those who escaped fill their hands with booty while they are given nothing.
On the authority of Ibn Ishaq: "When the Messenger of Allah had given Quraish and Arab tribes those gifts and allotted nothing to the Helpers, a group of the Helpers felt so uneasy about it that a lot of ill-statements against the Prophet were spread among them to an extent that one of them said: "By Allah, the Messenger of Allah was ill-spoken of by his folksmen!" And those ill-statements went on spreading till Sa�d bin �Ubadah met the Messenger of Allah , who in his turn faced his people after a while.
Sa�d bin �Ubadah said: "O Messenger of Allah, this group of the Helpers are furious at you about the distribution of the booty that you had won. You have allotted shares to your own kinsmen and forwarded lots of gifts to the Arab tribes. But this group has obtained nothing." The Prophet asked Sa�d exclaiming: "Sa�d, what do you think of all that?" Sa�d replied: "O Messenger of Allah. You know that I am nothing but a member of this group." "Call out on your people and bring them forth to me into this shed." Said the Prophet .
So Sa�d went out and summoned them. When some Emigrants came, he let them in but forbade others. When they were all gathered together, he informed the Prophet saying: "This group of the Helpers have just arrived to meet you in compliance with your orders." As soon as the Messenger faced them he thanked Allah and praised Him, then said to them inquiring, "I have been told that you are angry with me. Didn't I come to you when you were astray and Allah guided you? You were poor and Allah gave you wealth. Weren't you foes and Allah made you love one another." "Yes," they said, "Allah and His Messenger are better and more gracious." Then he said: "What prevents you from replying to the Messenger of Allah, O tribe of Helpers?" They said, "What should be the reply, O Messenger of Allah, while to the Lord and to his Messenger belong all benevolence and grace."
The Prophet again said:
You Helpers, do you feel anxious for the things of this world, wherewith I have sought to incline these people unto the Faith in which you are already established?
Are you not satisfied, O group of Helpers that the people go with ewes and camels while you go along with the Messenger of Allah () to your dwellings. By Him in Whose Hand is my life, had there been no migration, I would have been one of the Helpers. If the people would go through a valley and passage, and the Helpers go through another valley and passage, I would go through the valley and passage of the Helpers. Allah! Have mercy on the Helpers, their children and their children's children."
The audience wept until tears rolled down their beards as they said:
Then the Prophet left the gathering and the people also dispersed.
Arrival of the Hawazin Delegation:
Hawazin's delegation arrived a Muslims just after the distribution of spoils. They were fourteen men headed by Zuhair bin Sard. The Messenger's foster uncle was one of them. They asked him to bestow upon them some of the wealth and spoils. They uttered so touching words that the Messenger of All'h said to them: "You surely see who are with me. The most desirable speech to me is the most truthful. Which is dearer to you, your wealth or your women and children?" They replied: "Nothing whatsoever compares with kinship." Then when I perform the noon prayer, stand up and say: "We intercede with the Messenger of Allah to exhort the believers, and we intercede with the believers to exhort the Messenger of Allah to forego the captives of our people fallen to their lot." So when the Messenger of Allah performed the noon prayer, they stood up and said what they had been told to say. The Messenger , then, said: "As for what belongs to me and to the children of Abdul Muttalib, you may consider them, from now on, yours. And I will ask my folksmen to give back theirs." Upon hearing that the Emigrants and the Helpers said: "What belongs to us is, from now on, offered to the Messenger of Allah ." But Al-Aqra� bin Habis said, "We will grant none of what belongs to me and to Bani Tamim,"; so did �Uyaina bin Hisn, who said: "As for me and Bani Fazarah, I say �No�." Al-�Abbas bin Mirdas also refused and said: "No" for Bani Saleem and him. His people, however, said otherwise: "Whatever spoils belong to us we offer to the Messenger of Allah (.)" "You have undermined my position." Said Al-�Abbas bin Mirdas spontaneously. Then the Messenger of Allah said: "These people have come to you as Muslims. For this I have already tarried the distribution of the booty. Besides, I have granted them a fair option but they refused to have anything other than their women and children. Therefore he who has some of theirs and will prefer willingly to give them back, let them do. But those who favours to keep what he owns to himself, let them grant them back too, and he will be given as a recompense six times as much from the first booty that Allah may provide us." People then said, "We will willingly offer them all for the sake of the Messenger of Allah." The Messenger of Allah said: "But in this way we are not able to find out who is content and who is not. So go back and we will be waiting for your chiefs to convey to us your decisions." All of them gave back the women and children. The only one who refused to comply with the Messenger's desire was �Uyaina bin Hisn. He refused to let an old woman of theirs go back at first. Later on he let her go back. The Messenger of Allah gave every captive a garment as a gift.
Lesser Pilgrimage (Al-�Umrah) to Makkah and leaving for Madinah:
Having accomplished the distribution of the spoils at Al-Ji�ranah he left it while wearing Al-Umrah clothes and proceeded to Makkah to perform Al-Umrah. The Messenger of Allah turned back from there to Madinah after appointing �Itab bin Usaid on Makkah as governor. His arrival to Madinah was by the last six nights of Dhul-Qa�dah, in the year 8 A.H. On this occasion Muhammad Al-Ghazali said:
"What a great change it is between the victorious period of Muhammad at present which Allah has towered with a manifest conquest, and that period of the past during which Muhammad first arrived at this town, eight years ago."
When he first came to Madinah, he was pursued and wanted. He was seeking a secure shelter. He was a lonely stranger who sought companionship and comfort. The people of Madinah welcomed him, gave him residence and aided him and embraced the light of Islam, which had been sent down upon him. They, for his sake, did not care about the enmity of other peoples. Here he is entering Madinah again, after the lapse of eight years of that first visit. Madinah, the town that had received him once, when he was a frightened Emigrant; it receives him once again when Makkah has become in his hands and at his disposal. It is Makkah that has got rid of its pride and Jahiliyah (i.e. pre-Islamic period and traditions). It is now proud again and mighty in Islam. The Messenger of Allah forgave all the errors and wrongs of its people.
Upon returning from this long successful travel, the Messenger of Allah stayed in Madinah where he received delegates and dispatched agents and appointed preachers and callers to Islam everywhere. Those whose hearts were still full of prejudice against Islam and therefore were too proud to embrace Allah's religion, were decisively muffled on their non-acquiescence in the status quo prevalent then in Arabia.
Here is a mini-image about the believed ones. We have already stated that the Messenger's arrival in Madinah was by the last days of the eighth year of Al-Hijra. No sooner the crescent of Muharram of the ninth year turned up than the Messenger of Allah dispatched the believed ones, to the tribes as shown in the list below:
2. Yazeed bin Husain to Aslam and Ghifar.
3. �Abbad bin Bishr Al-Ashhali to Sulaim and Muzainah.
4. Rafi� bin Mukaith to Juhainah.
5. �Amr bin Al-�As to Bani Fazarah.
6. Ad-Dahhak bin Sufyan to Bani Kilab.
7. Basheer bin Sufyan to Bani Ka�b.
8. Ibn Al-Lutabiyah Al-Azdi to Bani Dhubyan.
9. Al-Muhajir bin Abi Omaiyah to Sana�a� (Al-Aswad Al-�Ansi called at him when he was in it).
10. Ziyad bin Labid to Hadramout.
11. �Adi bin Hatim to Tai� and Bani Asad.
12. Malik bin Nuwairah to Bani Hanzalah.
13. Az-Zabraqan bin Badr to Bani Sa�d (a portion of them).
14. Qais bin �Asim to Bani Sa�d (a portion of them).
15. Al-�Al� bin Al-Hadrami to Al-Bahrain.
16. �Ali bin Abi Talib to Najran (to collect Sadaqa & Jizya).
Some of these agents were despatched in Muharram, 7 A.H., others were sent later until the tribes they were heading for had completely converted into Islam. Such a move clearly demonstrates the great success that the Islamic Daawah (Call) enjoyed after Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty. However, shortly after the conquest of Makkah, people began to embrace Islam in large hosts.
In the same way that the believed ones were dispatched to the tribes, we understand that dispatching some more platoons to all regions of Arabia is a necessity for the prevalence and domination of security on all lands of Arabia.
Here is a list of those platoons:
Upon arrival in Madinah, the sister of �Adi bin Hatim begged the Messenger of Allah to have mercy on her and said: "O Messenger of Allah, my brother is absent and father is dead, and I am too old to render any service. Be beneficent to me so that Allah may be bountiful to you." He said: "Who is your brother?" She said: "It is �Adi bin Hatim." "Is he not the one who fled from Allah and his Messenger?" Said the Prophet then went away from her. Next day she reiterated the same thing as the day before and received the same answer. A day later she uttered similar words, this time he made benefaction to her. The man who was beside the Prophet, and whom she thought to be �Ali, said to her: "Ask for an animal from him to ride on." And she was granted her request.
She returned to Ash-Sham where she met her brother and said to him: "The Messenger of Allah has done me such noble deed that your father would never have done it. Therefore, willy-nilly, frightened or secure, you should go and see him." Unsecure neither protected by some one, not even recommended by a letter as a means of protection, �Adi came and met the Prophet. The Messenger of Allah took him home with him. As soon as he sat before him, the Messenger of Allah thanked Allah and praised him, then said: "What makes you flee? Do you flee lest you should say there is no god but Allah? Do you know any other god but Allah?" "No" he said, then talked for a while. The Messenger of Allah went on saying: "Certainly you flee so that you may not hear the statement saying �Allah is the Greatest.� Do you know anyone who is greater than Allah?" "No" he said. "The Jews are those whose portion is wrath, and the Christians are those who have gone astray," the Prophet retorted. "I am a Muslim and I believe in one God (Allah)." �Adi finally proclaimed with a joyous face. The Prophet ordered him a residence with one of the Helpers. From that time he started calling at the Prophet in the mornings and in the evenings.
On the authority of Ibn Ishaq, when the Prophet made him sit down in front of him in his house, the Prophet said, "O �Adi, were you not cast in disbelief?" "Yes". �Adi said. "Did you not share one quarter of your people's gains?" "Yes". Said �Adi. The Messenger of Allah said: "It is sinful in your religion to do such a thing, and you should not allow yourself to do it." "Yes, by Allah, that is true", said �Adi. "Thus I worked out that he was a Prophet inspired by Allah, and sent to people. He knows what is unknown."
In another version, the Prophet said: "�Adi, embrace Islam and you shall be secure." "But I am a man of religion." Said �Adi. "I know your religion better than you." Said the Prophet. "Do you know my religion better than me?" �Adi asked. The Prophet replied, "Yes". He said: "Are you not cast in disbelief because you appropriate to yourself the fourth of your people's gains?" "Yes". Said �Adi. "It is unlawful in your religion to do such a thing." The Prophet said, and ��Adi added: "He did not need to say it again for I immediately acquiesced it."
Al-Bukhari narrates that �Adi said: While we were with the Prophet , a man came in and complained to him about poverty. Then another man came in and complained about highway robbery. The Messenger of Allah then said: "O �Adi, have you ever been to Al-Hirah? If you were doomed to live long life, you would be able to see a riding camel woman travel from Hirah till it circumambulates Al-Kabah fearing none but Allah; and if you were to live long enough you would open the treasures of Kisra. And if you were to live long you would be able to see man offering a handful of gold or silver to others but none accepts to take it." At the end of this Hadith �Adi later on says: "I have seen a riding camel woman travel from Al-Hirah till it circumambulates the Kabah fearing none but Allah, I have also been one of those who opened the treasures of Kisra bin Hurmuz. If you were to live long life you would witness what the Prophet, Abul Qasim, had already said about �offering a handful of �� i.e. the Prophet�s prophecies did really come true."
The invasion and the conquest of Makkah was considered a decisive one between the truth and the error. As a result of which, the Arabs had no more doubt in Muhammad's mission. Thus we see that things went contrary to the pagans expectations. People started to embrace Islam, the religion of Allah, in great numbers. This is manifested clearly in the chapter � The delegations, of this book. It can also be deduced out of the enormous number of people who shared in the Hajjatul-Wad� (Farewell Pilgrimage). All domestic troubles came to an end. Muslims, eventually felt at ease and started setting up the teachings of Allah's Laws and intensifying the Call to Islam.
The underlying Reasons:
The Byzantine power, which was considered the greatest military force on earth at that time, showed an unjustifiable opposition towards Muslims. As we have already mentioned, their opposition started at killing the ambassador of the Messenger of Allah , Al-Harith bin �Umair Al-Azdi, by Sharhabeel bin �Amr Al-Ghassani. The ambassador was then carrying a message from the Prophet to the ruler of Busra. We have also stated that the Prophet consequently dispatched a brigade under the command of Zaid bin Haritha, who had a fierce fight against the Byzantines at Mu�tah. Although Muslim forces could not have revenge on those haughty overproud tyrants, the confrontation itself had a great impression on the Arabs, all over Arabia.
Caesar � who could neither ignore the great benefit that Mu�tah Battle had brought to Muslims, nor could he disregard the Arab tribes expectations of independence, and their hopes of getting free from his influence and reign, nor he could ignore their alliance to the Muslims , realizing all that, Caesar was aware of the progressive danger threatening his borders, especially Ash-Sham-fronts which were neighbouring Arab lands. So he concluded that demolition of the Muslims power had grown an urgent necessity. This decision of his should, in his opinion, be achieved before the Muslims become too powerful to conquer, and raise troubles and unrest in the adjacent Arab territories.
To meet these exigencies, Caesar mustered a huge army of the Byzantines and pro-Roman Ghassanide tribes to launch a decisive bloody battle against the Muslims.
General News about the Byzantines and Ghassanide Preparations for War.
No sooner news about the Byzantine's preparations for a decisive invasion against Muslims reached Madinah than fear spread among them. They started to envisage the Byzantine invasion in the least sound they could hear. This could be clearly worked out of what had happened to Umar bin Al-Khattab one day.
The Prophet had taken an oath to stay off his wives for a month in the ninth year of Al-Hijra. Therefore, he deserted them and kept off in a private place. At the beginning, the Companions of the Messenger of Allah were puzzled and could not work out the reason for such behaviour. They thought the Prophet had divorced them and that was why he was grieved, disturbed and upset. In Umar's version of the very story he says: "I used to have a Helper friend who often informed me about what happened if I weren't present, and in return I always informed him of what had taken place during his absence. They both lived in the high part of Madinah. Both of them used to call at the Prophet alternatively during that time of suspense. Then one day I heard my friend, knock at the door saying: "Open up! Open up!" I asked wondering, "What's the matter? Has the Ghassanide come?" "No it is more serious than that. The Messenger of Allah has deserted his wives."
In another version, Umar said, "We talked about Ghassanide preparations to invade us. When it was his turn to convey the news to me, he went down and returned in the evening. He knocked at the door violently and said Is he sleeping?� I was terrified but I went out to meet him. �Something serious had taken place.� He said. �Has the Ghassaindes arrived?� Said I. �No,� he said, �it is greater and more serious. The Messenger of Allah has divorced his wives." 
This state of too much alertness manifests clearly the seriousness of the situation that Muslims began to experience. The seriousness of the situation was confirmed to a large degree by the hypocrites behaviour, when news about the Byzantines� preparations reached Madinah. The fact that the Messenger of Allah won all the battles he fought, and that no power on earth could make him terrified, and that he had always proved to be able to overcome all the obstacles that stood in his way - did not prevent the hypocrites, who concealed evil in their hearts, from expecting an affliction to fall upon the Muslims and Islam.
They used to harbour evil and ill-intentions against the whole process of Islam and the Muslims. On grounds of illusory hopes of destroying this great religious edifice, they erected a hotbed of conspiracy and intrigue in the form of a mosque � Masjid-e-Darar (the mosque of harm). They approached the Prophet with the request that he should come and consecrate the place by praying in it himself. As he was at the moment about to start for Tabuk, he deferred compliance with their request till his return. Meanwhile he came to know through Divine Revelation that it was not a Mosque for devotion and prayer but a meeting place for the anti-Islamic elements. On his return, therefore, the Prophet sent a party to demolish the new structure.
Particular News about the
A magnified image of the prominent danger threatening the Muslims life was carried to them by the Nabateans who brought oil from Ash-Sham to Madinah. They carried news about Heraclius preparations and equipment of an enormous army counting over forty thousand fighters besides Lukham, Judham and other tribes allied to the Byzantines. They said that its vanguard had already reached Al-Balq�. Thus was the grave situation standing in ambush for the Muslims. The general situation was aggravated seriously by other adverse factors of too much hot weather, drought and the rough and rugged distance they had to cover in case they decided to encounter the imminent danger.
The Messenger of Allah's concept and estimation of the situation and its development was more precise and accurate than all others. He thought that if he tarried or dealt passively with the situation in such a way that might enable the Byzantines to paddle through the Islamic controlled provinces or to go as far as Madinah, this would � amid these circumstances � leave the most awful impression on Islam as well as on the Muslims� military credibility.
The pre-Islamic beliefs and traditions (Al-Jahiliyah) which were at that time dying because of the strong decisive blow that they had already had at Hunain, could have had a way to come back to life once again in such an environment. The hypocrites who were conspiring against the Muslims so that they might stab them in the back whereas Byzantines would attack them from the front. If such a thing came to light and they succeeded in their evil attempts, the Prophet and his Companions efforts to spread Islam would collapse and their profits which were the consequences of successive and constant fights and invasions would be invalidated. The Messenger of Allah realised all that very well. So in spite of the hardships and drought that Muslims were suffering from � the Prophet was determined that the Muslims should invade the Byzantines and fight a decisive battle at their own borders. He was determined not to tarry at all in order to thwart any Roman attempt to approach the land of Islam.
When the Messenger of Allah had made up his mind and took his final decision, he ordered his Companions to get ready for war and sent for the Makkans and the other Arab tribes asking for their assistance.
Contrary to his habit of concealing his real intention of the invasion by means of declaring a false one, he announced openly his intention of meeting the Byzantines and fighting them. He cleared the situation to his people so that they would get ready, and urged them to fight in the way of Allah. On this occasion a part of Surat Bara�a (Chapter 9 � The Repentance) was sent down by Allah, urging them to steadfastness and stamina.
On the other hand, the Messenger of Allah cherished them to pay charities and to spend the best of their fortunes in the way of Allah.
No sooner had the Muslims heard the voice of the Messenger of Allah calling them to fight the Byzantines than they rushed to comply with his orders. With great speed they started getting ready for war. Tribes and phratries from here and there began pouring in Madinah. Almost all the Muslims responded positively. Only those who had weakness at their hearts favoured to stay behind. They were only three people. Even the needy and the poor who could not afford a ride came to the Messenger of Allah asking for one so that they would be able to share in the fight against the Byzantines. But when he said:
The Muslims raced to spend out money and to pay charities to provide this invasion. �Uthman, for instance, who had already rigged two hundred, saddled camels to travel to Ash-Sham, presented them all with two hundred ounces (of gold) as charity. He also fetched a thousand dinars and cast them all into the lap of the Messenger of All�h , who turned them over and said: "From this day on nothing will harm �Uthman regardless of what he does." Again and again �Uthman gave till his charity toped to nine hundred camels and a hundred horses, besides the money he paid.
Abdur Rahman bin �Awf, on his side, paid two hundred silver ounces, whereas Abu Bakr paid the whole money he had and left nothing but Allah and His Messenger as a fortune for his family. �Umar paid half his fortune. Al-�Abbas gifted a lot of money. Talhah, Sa�d bin �Ubadah and Muhammad bin Maslamah, gave money for the welfare of the invasion. �Asim bin �Adi, on his turn, offered ninety camel-burdens of dates. People raced to pay little and much charities alike. One of them gave the only half bushel (or the only bushel) he owned. Women shared in this competition by giving the things they owned; such as musk, armlets, anklets, ear-rings and rings. No one abstained from spending out money, or was too mean to grant money or anything except the hypocrites:
The Muslim Army is leaving for Tabuk:
Upon accomplishing the equipment of the army, the Messenger of Allah ordained that Muhammad bin Maslamah Al-Ansari should be appointed over Madinah � in another version Siba� bin �Arftah. To �Ali bin Abu Talib he entrusted his family's safety and affairs and ordered him to stay with them. This move made the hypocrites undervalue �Ali, so he followed the Messenger of All�h and caught up with him. But the Prophet made �Ali turn back to Madinah after saying: "Would it not suffice you to be my successor in the way that Aaron (Harun) was to Moses�?" Then he proceeded saying: "But no Prophet succeeds me."
On Thursday, the Messenger of Allah marched northwards to Tabuk. The army that numbered thirty thousand fighters was a great one, when compared with the previous armies of Islam. Muslims had never marched with such a great number before.
Despite all the gifts of wealth and mounts the army was not perfectly equipped. The shortage of provisions and mounts was so serious that eighteen men mounted one camel alternatively. As for provisions, members of the army at times had to eat the leaves of trees till their lips got swollen. Some others had to slaughter camels � though they were so dear � so that they could drink the water of their stomach; that is why that army was called "The army of distress".
On their way to Tabuk, the army of Islam passed by Al-Hijr � which was the native land of Thamud who cut out (huge) rocks in the valley; that is "Al-Qura Valley" of today. They watered from its well but later the Messenger of Allah told them not to drink of that water, nor perform the ablution with it. The dough they made, he asked them to feed their camels with. He forbade them to eat anything whatsoever of it. As an alternative he told them to water from that well which Prophet Salih�s she-camel used to water from.
On the authority of Ibn �Umar: "Upon passing by Al-Hijr the Prophet said:
Then he raised his head up and accelerated his strides till he passed the valley out."
Shortage of water and the army�s need to it made them complain to the Messenger of Allah about that. So he supplicated Allah, who sent a rainful cloud. It rained and so all people drank and supplied themselves with their need of water.
When they drew near Tabuk, the Prophet said: "If Allah will, tomorrow you will arrive at Tabuk spring. You will not get there before daytime. So whoever reaches it should not touch its water; but wait till I come." Mu�adh said: "When we reached the spring it used to gush forth some water. We found that two men had already preceded us to it. The Messenger of Allah asked them: �Have you touched its water?� They replied: �Yes�. He said what Allah inspired him to say, then he scooped up little water of that spring, thin stream which gathered together, he washed his face and hand with it and poured it back into it; consequently plenty of water spouted out of it so people watered. �Mu�adh�, said the Messenger of Allah, �if you were doomed to live long life you will see in here fields full of vegetation.�"
On the way to Tabuk, or as soon as they reached Tabuk, the Messenger of Allah said: �Severe wind will blow tonight, so none of you should stand up. Whoever has a camel should tie it up.� Later on when the strong wind blew, one of the men stood up and the wind carried him away to Tai� Mountain.
All the way long the Messenger of Allah was intent on the performance of the combined prayer of noon and the afternoon; and so did he with sunset and evening prayers. His prayers for both were either pre-time or post-time prayers.
The Army of Islam at Tabuk:
Arriving at Tabuk and camping there, the Muslim army was ready to face the enemy. There, the Messenger of Allah delivered an eloquent speech that included the most inclusive words. In that speech he urged the Muslims to seek the welfare of this world and the world to come. He warned and cherished them and gave them good tidings. By doing that he cherished those who were broken in spirits, and blocked up the gap of shortage and mess they were suffering from due to lack of supplies, food and other substances.
Upon learning of the Muslims� march, the Byzantines and their allies were so terrified that none of them dared set out to fight. On the contrary they scattered inside their territory. It brought, in itself, a good credit to the Muslim forces. That had gained military reputation in the mid and remote lands of Arabian Peninsula. The great and serious political profits that the Muslim forces had obtained, were far better than the ones they could have acquired if the two armies had been engaged in military confrontation.
The Head of Ailah, Yahna bin Rawbah came to the Messenger of Allah , made peace with him and paid him the tribute (Al-Jizya). Both of Jarba� and Adhruh peoples paid him tribute, as well. So the Messenger of Allah gave each a guarantee letter, similar to Yahna�s, in which he says:
This is a guarantee of protection from Allah and Muhammad the Prophet, the Messenger of Allah, to Yahna bin Rawbah and the people of Ailah; their ships, their caravans on land and sea shall have the custody of Allah and the Prophet Muhammad, he and whosoever are with him of Ash-Sham people and those of the sea. Whosoever contravenes this treaty, his wealth shall not save him; it shall be the fair prize of him that takes it. Now it should not be lawful to hinder the men from any springs which they have been in the habit of frequenting, nor from any journeys they desire to make, whether by sea or by land."
The Messenger of Allah dispatched Khalid bin Al-Waleed at the head of four hundred and fifty horsemen to �Ukaidir Dumat Al-Jandal and said to him: "You will see him hunting oryxes." So when Khalid drew near his castle and was as far as an eye-sight range, he saw the oryxes coming out rubbing their horns against the castle gate. As it was a moony night Khalid could see Ukaidir come out to hunt them, so he captured him � though he was surrounded by his men � and brought him back to the Messenger of Allah , who spared his life and made peace with him for the payment of two thousand camels, eight hundred heads of cattle, four hundred armours and four hundred lances. He obliged him to recognize the duty of paying tribute and charged him with collecting it from Dumat, Tabuk, Ailah and Taima�.
The tribes, who used to ally the Byzantines, became quite certain that their dependence oinn their former masters came to an end. Therefore they turned into being pro-Muslims. The Islamic state had therefore enlarged its borders to an extent that it, touched the Byzantines and their agents borders. So we see that the Byzantine agents role was over.
Returning to Madinah:
The Muslim army returned from Tabuk victoriously, undeceived or wronged. That was because Allah had sufficed them the evils of fight.
On the way back and at a mountain road, twelve hypocrites sought the Prophet's life and that was while he was passing along that mountain road with only Ammar holding the rein of his she-camel and Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman driving it, at the time that people had already gone down into the bottom of the valley.
The hypocrites seized that opportunity to seek the Prophet's life. As the Messenger of Allah and his two companions were moving along, they heard thrusts of people coming towards him from behind with their faces veiled. Hudhaifa, who was sent by the Prophet to see what was going on, saw them and stroke their mounts� faces with a crook in his hand and Allah cast fear into their hearts. They fled away and overtook their people.
However, Hudhaifa named them to the Messenger of Allah and informed him of their intentions. So that was why Hudhaifa was called the "confidant" of the Messenger of Allah . About this event Allah, the Exalted says:
When his headquarters, Madinah, began to loom at the horizon, the Prophet said: "This is a cheerful sight. This is Uhud, which is a mountain, we like it and it likes us." When the Madinese learnt of their arrival they set out to meet the army. Women, youths, youngsters and small children went out of town to celebrate their home-return wholeheartedly singing:
Thanks is due to us, as long as a supplicator invokes to Allah.."
The Messenger of Allah 's march to Tabuk was in Rajab and his return in Ramadan. So we see that this Ghazwah took fifty days, twenty days of which were spent in Tabuk and the others on the way to and fro. Tabuk Invasion was the last one made by the Prophet .
The People Who lagged Behind:
Due to its particular circumstances, this invasion was a peculiar severe trial provided by Allah only to try the believers�Faith and sort them out of others. This is Allah's permanent Will in such circumstances. In this respect He says:
Lagging and hanging back from full participation in that invasion amounted to the degree of hypocrisy. Whenever the Messenger of Allah was informed of a man's lingering, he would say: "Leave him alone! If Allah knows him to be good He will enable him to follow you; but if he were not so, Allah would relieve us of him."
Nobody stayed behind except those who were either hindered by a serious excuse or the hypocrites who told lies to Allah and His Messenger.
Some of those hypocrites lingering was due to an excuse based on forgery and delusion. Some others tarried but didn't ask for an instant permission. But there were three believers who unjustifiably lingered. They were the ones whom Allah tried their Faith, but later on He turned to them in mercy and accepted their repentance.
As soon as the Messenger of Allah had entered Madinah, he prayed two Raka then he sat to receive his people. The hypocrites who were over eighty men came and offered various kinds of excuses and started swearing. The Prophet acknowledged their excuses and invoked Allah's forgiveness for them but he entrusted their inner thoughts and Faith to Allah.
As for the three faithful believers " Kaab bin Malik, Murara bin Ar-Rabi, and Hilal bin Omaiyah " who favoured telling the truth, the Messenger of Allah bade his Companions not to talk to them.
Consequently they were subject to a severe boycott and were excluded from the life of the community. Everybody turned them their back. So they felt as if the whole land had become constrained to them in spite of its spaciousness and they felt awkward and uneasy. The hard times they lived and which lasted for over forty days were towered by an order to them to forsake their wives. After fifty days boycott Allah turned to them and revealed that in Quran:
Allah's turning to them was a great joy for both Muslims and the three concerned. The joy of the stayers behind was unaccountable in aim and degree. It was the happiest day in their lives. The good tiding cherished them and filled their hearts with delight. As for those who lingered due to disability or sickness or any other serious excuse, Allah, the Exalted said about them:
When he approached Madinah, the Messenger of Allah said:
The Invasion of Tabuk and its Far-Reaching Ramifications:
The effect of this invasion is great as regards extending and confirming the Muslimss influence and domination on the Arabian Peninsula. It was quite obvious to everybody that no power but Islam's would live long among the Arabs. The remainders of Jahiliyin and hypocrites who used to conspire steadily against the Muslims and who perpetually relied on Byzantine power when they were in need of support or help these people lost their expectations and desires of ever reclaiming their ex-influence. Realizing that there was no way out and that they were to submit to the fait accompli, they gave up their attempts.
From that time on, hypocrites were no longer treated leniently or even gently by the Muslims. Allah not only bade Muslims to treat them severely but He also forbade them to take their gift charities or perform prayer on their dead, or ask Allah's forgiveness for them or even visit their tombs. Allh bade the Muslims to demolish the mosque, which they verily appointed and used as a hiding place where they might practise their plots, conspiracy and deceit. Some Quranic verses were sent down disclosing them publicly and utterly so that everybody in Madinah got to know their reality.
The great impact that this invasion produced could be perceived in of the great number of delegations who came successively to meet the Messenger of Allah . Naturally, deputations used to come to meet him at the end of an invasion particularly after Makkah Conquest but they were not as many as these nor were they as frequent as they were then in the wake of Tabuk event. It was certainly the greatest.
The Qur��nic Verses Relating to this Invasion:
Many a verse of Bara�a (Tauba) Chapter handling the event of Tabuk were revealed. Some verses were revealed before the march, while others after setting out for Tabuk, i.e. in the context of the battle. Some other verses were also revealed on the Prophet'as arrival in Madinah. All of which covered the incidents that featured this invasion: the immanent circumstances of the battle, exposure of the hypocrites, the prerogatives and special rank earmarked for the strivers in the cause of Allah, acceptance of the repentance of the truthful believers who slackened and those who hung back, etc.
Some Important Events that featured that Year:
During this year many events of great significance took place. They were: