In the name of Allah ,the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

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Kitaab At-Tawheed, Chapter: 4

Explanation of the Meaning of Tawheed and the Testimony: Laa ilaaha illallaah 1

Allah (swt ), says:

" Those whom they supplicate [created beings, such as Prophets, pious men, or angels], desiring means of access to their Rabb, as to which of them should be the nearest - they [the Prophets pious men etc.] hope for His Mercy and fear His punishment: Verily, the punishment of their Rabb is fearful" (Qur'an 57:17)

Allah (swt ) informs us in this verse that those whom the polytheists worship besides Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful, such as the angels and the pious people, themselves try to get nearer to Allah (swt ) by obedience to Him, worshipping Him and carrying out His Commands, hoping for His Mercy; and they abstain from those things which He has prohibited, in fear of His punishment because every true Believer fears and dreads His punishment.

Benefits Derived From This Verse

1. The falseness of the worship of deities other than Allah, by the polytheists, since their objects of worship themselves seek nearness to Allah and hope for His Mercy and fear His punishment.

2. The piety of those who are worshipped does not validate the act of worshipping them.

3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Mercy.

  1. The true Believer approaches Allah in a state between fear and hope, except at the time when death approaches, then hope becomes stronger.

Relevance of the Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

That it proves that the meaning of Tawheed and the testimony Laa ilaaha illallah is the abandonment of the deeds of the polytheists such as calling upon the Prophets and the Righteous and requesting their intercession with Allah (swt ); and the verbal recitation of the testimony is not sufficient if the worship of all deities besides Allah (swt ) is not rejected.


Allah (swt ), says:

" And [remember] when Ibraheem said to his father and his people: "Verily, I am innocent of what you worship, except Him Who originated me, and He will certainly guide me" (Qur'an 43:26-27)

Allah (swt ), informs us in this verse, that His Messenger and Khaleel2, Ibraheem (as ) told his father - Aazar - and his people that he was totally blameless and guiltless of all of their deities except One: Allah (swt ), Who created him, and Who, Alone Can Grant him success, and by Whose Hand he may be benefitted or harmed.

Benefits Derived From These Verses

1. That the basis of the Religion taught by all the Prophets was one: Tawheed.

2. That speaking out in the cause of Truth is an essential attribute of all Messengers.

3. The obligation to condemn that which is detestable, even though it may be found in one's close relatives.

4. The obligation to declare oneself free (in word and deed) from the wickedness of Shirk.

5. Evidence that Ibraheem's people used to worship Allah, but associated partners with Him.

6. That the Guidance of Success comes only from Allah.

Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of Tawheed

That the verses prove that a person's Tawheed is not correct if he does not declare (by word and deed) his innocence of the worship of any deity besides Allah.


Allah (swt ), says:

" They have taken their Ahbaar3 and their Ruhbaan4 to be Rabbs beside Allah, and the Messiah, the son of Maryam, though they were not commanded but to worship One God: There is none worthy of worship but He, glorified be He: [Far is He] above that which they associate [with Him]" (Qur'an 9:31)

Allah (swt ), informs us in this verse that the Jews and Christians have gone astray from the Straight Path, and have done what they were never commanded to do: They raised their scholars and men of religion to the status of gods, worshipping them beside Allah (swt ); this, by obeying them, when they declared that which Allah (swt ) has forbidden to be permissible, and when they declared what Allah (swt ) has permitted to be forbidden, thus elevating them to the level of Rabb, since only the Rabb, Most High ordains what is permissible and what is forbidden. Indeed, the Christians, not content with this, began to worship Eisa (as ), and considered him a son of Allah, though they were not ordered in the Tauraa and the Injeel except to worship Allah (swt ), Alone: Far above that which they attribute to Him is He, the Rabb of the worlds.

Benefits Derived From This Verse

1. That obedience to other than Allah, in contradiction to Allah's Commands constitutes Shirk.

2. It is forbidden to obey one of Allah's creatures, if in so doing, one is disobedient to the Creator.

3. Deeds will not be considered righteous unless two conditions are met: (i) That the deeds are done purely for Allah, and (ii) that they conform to the teachings of the Messengers.

4. That the scholars of religion are not infallible.

5. Evidence that the Jews and Christians have gone astray from the correct precepts of their Religion: i.e. Tawheed.

6. The danger of misguided scholars to the Ummah.5

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

That it proves that the meaning of Tawheed, and the testimony: Laa ilaaha illallaah entail confirming the Oneness of Allah by obedience to Him and to His Messenger, because whoever obeyed the Messenger has obeyed Allah.


Allah (swt ), says:

" And amongst mankind are those who take [for worship] others besides Allah, as equals [with Allah]: They love them as they should love Allah. And those who believe love Allah more [than anything else]. If only the wrongdoers could see, behold, they would see the punishment: That to Allah belongs all power, and Allah is Stern in punishment" (Qur'an 2:165)

Allah (swt ), informs us in this verse that some of mankind set up for themselves deities which they love more than they love Allah (swt ), then He, Most Glorified explains that the Believers are stronger in their love for Allah (swt ) than the polytheists because the Believers are pure and sincere in their love of Allah (swt ), Alone, while the polytheists divide their love between Allah (swt ) and their false gods; and whoever was sincere in loving Allah (swt ), Alone, his love would be stronger than that of the polytheist who divides his love. Then Allah (swt ), Most Glorified promises those who associate partners with Him that when they see the punishment which He has prepared especially for them on the Day of Resurrection, they will wish that they had not associated others with Allah (swt ), either in love, or in anything else. Then they shall know, with certain knowledge that all power belongs to Allah (swt ), and that Allah is Stern in enforcing His punishment.

Benefits Derived From This Verse

1. That love is a kind of worship.

2. Confirmation that the polytheists love Allah, but this will not benefit them so long as they are guilty of Shirk.

3. The negation of faith of those who commit Shirk by loving other deities besides Allah.

4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of all-embracing Power.

Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

That it proves that the meaning of Tawheed and the testimony: Laa ilaaha illallaah is to confirm the Oneness of Allah in a foundation of love which entails purity and sincerity in all acts of worship for Allah, Alone.


It is authentically reported that the Prophet (saas ) said:

"Whoever said: "Laa ilaaha illallaah," and rejected all that is worshipped besides Allah (swt ), (know that) Allah (swt ) has forbidden the taking of his property and the spilling of his blood; and his account will be for Allah, the Almighty, the All-powerful." 6

Whoever said: "Laa ilaaha illallaah," pronouncing it, understanding its meaning and acting upon all that it entails, and rejected all that is worshipped besides Allah (swt ) (i.e. by his heart, his tongue and his actions), it is forbidden for the Muslims to take his property (except what the Law requires such as the payment of zakah), or to take his life, except as the Law requires (such as the punishment for adultery after chastity, or disbelief after belief or for murder); and his account will be for Allah (swt ): That is, He will take charge of his account on the Day of Resurrection, and if he was truthful in his testimony, He will reward him, but if he was insincere in his testimony, He will punish him.

Benefits Derived From This Hadith

1. The virtue of Islam which protects the life and property of whosoever embraces it.

2. The obligation to desist from enmity towards the disbeliever, should he embrace Islam, even though he should do so during a battle until and unless it should be proved that his testimony was false.

3. That a person might say: "Laa ilaaha illallaah, without rejecting that which is worshipped besides Him."

4. That the conditions of acceptance of faith include pronouncing the shahaadah: Laa ilaaha illallaah, and rejecting all that is worshipped besides Him.

5. That judgement in this world is based on appearances.

6. The forbiddance of appropriating the property of the Muslim unless it is ordained by Islamic Law, such as zakah, or a legally imposed fine in compensation for that which he has destroyed (be it property or a life).

Relevance of the Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

That it proves that the meaning of Tawheed and the explanation of the shahaadah: Laa ilaaha illallaah are not complete without a categorical rejection of all that is worshipped besides Allah (swt ).

Important Note

The disbelieving polytheist has only two choices: (i) To embrace Islam or (ii) to be fought; but the People of the Book have three choices: (i) To embrace Islam, (ii) to pay the jizyah, or (iii) to fight (in that order).



1. Laa ilaaha Iilallah: None has the right to be worshipped except Allah (swt).
2. Khaleel: Friend; Ibraheem u is referred to by Allah (swt) as: Khaleelullaah, i.e. The Beloved of Allah (swt). The common translation of Khaleelullaah as the Friend of Allah (swt), is far from doing justice to this illustrious title, for according to scholars of Arabic language, the word khalla, from which the word khaleel is derived indicates a greater degree of love than is conveyed by the word friend.
3. Ahbar: (sing.= Habr) Religious scholars, according to At-Tabari.
4. Ruhban: (sing.= Rahib) Reciters of Scriptures and scholars of Religious Jurisprudence, according to At-Tabari.
5. Ummah: Community, i.e. the Muslim Community.
6. Narrated by Muslim.

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