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Could you give me some brief details about the life of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)?
Praise be to Allaah.
Differences and disputes arose among the Children of Israel. They introduced alterations and changes in their beliefs and laws. Thus truth was extinguished and falsehood prevailed, oppression and evil became widespread, and people needed a religion that would establish truth, destroy evil and guide people to the straight path, therefore Allah sent Muhammad
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as Allaah said (interpretation of the meaning):
And We have not sent down the Book (the Quraan) to you (O Muhammad, except that you may explain clearly unto them those things in which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a folk who believe
Allaah sent all the Prophets and Messengers to call for the worship of Allah alone, and to bring people from darkness to light. The first of these Messengers was Nooh and the last of them was Muhammad
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as Allaah said (interpretation of the meaning):
And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): Worship Allaah (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Taaghoot (all false deities, i.e. do not worship Taaghoot besides Allaah)
The last of the Prophets and Messengers is Muhammad
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), so there is no Prophet after him, as Allaah said:
Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allaah and the last (end) of the Prophets
Every Prophet was sent exclusively to his own people, but Allaah sent His Messenger Muhammad
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to all of mankind as Allaah said (interpretation of the meaning):
Allaah revealed to His messenger the Quraan by which to guide people And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) except as a giver of glad tidings and a Warner to all mankind, but most of men know not
Allaah sent the Quraan to His Messenger, to guide people and bring them forth from darkness to light by the will of their Lord. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
(This is) a Book which We have revealed unto you (O Muhammad) in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness (of disbelief and polytheism) into light (of belief in the Oneness of Allaah and Islâmic Monotheism) by their Lords Leave to the path of the All Mighty, the Owner of all praise
The messenger of Allaah, Muhammad ibn Abd-Allaah ibn Abd al-Muttalib al-Haashimi al-Qurashi was born in Makkah in the year of the Elephant, the year when the companions of the Elephant came to Makkah to destroy the Kabah, but Allaah destroyed them. His father died before he was born, and after he was born, Haleemah al-Sadiyyah nursed him. When he was six years old, he visited his maternal uncles in Madeenah with his mother Aaminah bint Wahb. On the way back to Makkah, his mother died in al-Abwaa. Then his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib became his guardian. But Abd al-Muttalib died when Muhammad was eight years old. Then his paternal uncle Abu Taalib became his guardian. He took care of him, treated him kindly and defended him for more than forty years, but when Abu Taalib died he had not come to believe in the religion of Muhammad lest he be reproached by Quraysh for abandoning the religion of his forefathers
When he was young, Muhammad used to tend sheep for the people of Makkah, then he traveled to Syria to do business on behalf of Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid, and he made a good profit. Khadeejah was impressed with his character, and his sincerity and honesty, so he married her when he was twenty-five, and she was forty, and he did not marry any other woman until after she died.
Allaah made Muhammad grow in a good manner, and Allaah took care of him, so he was the the best of his people in physical wellbeing and in attitude, he was the most generous, the most patient, the most truthful, the most sincere and the most honest, so his people called him al-Ameen (the trustworthy) .
Then he was given an inclination towards solitude, so he used to spend many days and nights alone in the cave of Hiraa, worshiping and praying to his Lord. He hated idols, alcohol and promiscuous conduct, so he never paid any attention to them all his life
When Muhammad reached the age of thirty-five he took part in the rebuilding of the Kabah, which had been destroyed by a flood. A dispute arose concerning who should put the Black Stone back in its place, and they appointed him as an arbitrator to resolve the dispute, so he called for a garment and placed the stone on it then he told the tribal chiefs to hold the garment at the edges so that all of them could lift it together, then Muhammad put it in place and put stones and mortar around it.
The people of the Jaahiliyyah used to have some good characteristics such as generosity, loyalty and courage, and they used to follow some teachings of the religion of Ibraaheem, such as venerating the Kabah and making Tawaaf around it, performing Hajj and Umrah, and offering sacrifices. But besides that they used to have some bad habits and traditions, such as fornication, drinking alcohol, consuming ribaa (usury or interest), killing their daughters, oppression and worshiping idols.
The first one to introduce changes in the religion of Ibrahim, and to call for the worship of idols was Amr ibn Luhayy al-Khuzaai, who brought idols to Makkah and other places, and called people to worship them. Among these idols were Wudd, Suwaa, Yaghooth, Yaooq, and Nasra.
Later on, the Arabs also worshipped other idols such as the idol of Manaat in a place called Qadeed, and al-Laat in al-Taaif, al-Uzza in Wadi Nakhlah, Hubal inside the Kabah, and other idols around the Kabah, and idols in their homes. People used to consult soothsayers, fortunetellers and magicians to judge between them.
When shirk and corruption became so widespread, Allaah sent Muhammad
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), when he was forty years old, to call the people to worship Allaah Alone and to give up idol-worship. Quraysh denounced him for that and said:
Has he made the aalihah (gods) (all) into One Ilaah (God Allaah). Verily, this is a curious thing!
[Saad 38:5 interpretation of the meaning]
These idols continued to be worshipped instead of Allaah until Allaah sent His Messenger Muhammad
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) with the Message of Tawheed (Oneness of Allaah). So he and his Companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) broke them and destroyed them, truth prevailed and falsehood was vanquished:
And say: Truth (i.e. Islamic Monotheism or this Quraan or Jihaad against polytheists) has come and Baatil (falsehood, i.e. Satan or polytheism) has vanished. Surely, Baatil is ever bound to vanish
[al-Israa 17:81 interpretation of the meaning]
The first revelation that was sent down to the Prophet
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was in the cave of Hiraa where he used to go to worship, when Jibreel came to him and commanded him to read. The Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, I am not a reader. This happened again, and on the third time, he said to him:
Read! In the Name of your Lord Who has created (all that exists).
He has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood).
Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous
[al-Alaq 96:1-3 interpretation of the meaning]
The Messenger went back home, his heart pounding. He entered upon his wife Khadeejah and told her what had happened, saying I feared for myself. She calmed him down and said, By Allaah, Allaah will never forsake you, for you uphold the ties of kinship, help the weak, honour your guests, give in charity and help when some one is stricken with calamity. Then she went with him to her cousin Waraqah ibn Nawfal, who had become a Christian. When he told him what had happened, he gave him glad tidings and told him, this is the Naamoos whom Allaah sent to Moosa. He encouraged him to be patient if his people persecuted him and expelled him. Then the wahy stopped for a while, and the Messenger
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was saddened by that. Then whilst he was walking one day, he saw the angel again, between the heavens and the earth. He went back to his house and wrapped himself in his blanket. Then Allaah revealed the words (interpretation of the meaning):
O you (Muhammad) enveloped in garments!
Arise and warn!
After that, revelations came one after another to the Messenger
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
The Prophet stayed in Makkah for thirteen years, calling for the worship of Allaah alone, in secret then openly, when Allaah commanded him to proclaim the truth. So he called them in a gentle and kind manner, without fighting. He called his clan and closest relatives, then he warned his people and those around them, then he warned all the Arabs, then he warned all of mankind. Then Allaah said:
Therefore proclaim openly (Allaahs Message Islamic Monotheism) that which you are commanded, and turn away from Al Mushrikoon (polytheists, idolaters, and disbelievers)
A few people, rich people, nobles, the weak and poor, men and women, believed in the Messenger. All of them were persecuted for their faith. Some were tortured and some were killed. Some of them migrated to Abyssinia, fleeing from the persecution of Quraysh, and some of them were persecuted with the Messenger
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), until Allaah caused His religion to prevail.
When the Messenger reached the age of fifty and ten years of his mission had passed, his uncle Abu Taalib, who had protected him from the persecution of Quraysh, died. Then his wife Khadeejah, who had been his consolation, also died, and the persecution of his people intensified. They harrassed him and persecuted him with all kinds of torments, and he bore it with patience, seeking the reward of Allaah. May the blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him.
When the persecution of Quraysh became too intense, he went out to al-Taaif and called its people to Islam but they did not respond; instead they insulted him and threw stones at him, until his heels started to bleed. He went back to Makkah and continued to call his people to Islam during Hajj and at other times.
Then Allaah took His Messenger on the Night Journey from al-Masjid al-Haraam in Makkah to al-Masjid al-Aqsaa (in Jerusalem), riding on al-Buraaq, accompanied by Jibreel. He stopped and led the Prophets in prayer, then he was taken up into the lowest heaven, where he saw Adam, with the souls of the blessed to his right and the souls of the doomed to his left. Then he was taken up to the second heaven where he saw Eesa and Yahyaa; then to the third heaven where he saw Yoosuf; then to the fourth heaven where he saw Idrees; then to the fifth heaven where he saw Haroon; then to the sixth heaven where he saw Moosa; then to the seventh heaven where he saw Ibraaheem. Then he was taken up to Sidrat al-Muntaha (the Lote-tree of the utmost boundary), and his Lord spoke to him and enjoined fifty prayers upon him and his ummah each day and night. Then that was reduced to five prayers to be performed, with a reward for fifty, and the prayer was confirmed to be five prayers each day and night for the ummah of Muhammad
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Then he returned to Makkah before dawn came, and he told them what had happened to him. The believers believed him but the kaafirs did not.
Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allaah) [above all that (evil) they associate with Him]
Who took His slave (Muhammad) for a journey by night from AlMasjid AlHaraam (at Makkah) to Al Masjid Al Aqsaa (in Jerusalem), the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might show him (Muhammad) of Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.). Verily, He is the All Hearer, the All Seer
[al-Israa 17:1 interpretation of the meaning]
Then Allaah sent to His Messenger
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) people who would help and support him. During the Hajj season, he met a group from the tribe of Khazraj in Madeenah. They embraced Islam, then they went back to Madeenah and spread Islam there. The following year, they were over ten people, whom the Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) met, and when they left he sent Musab ibn Umayr with them to teach them the Quraan and Islam. Many people became Muslim through him, including the leaders of the tribe of Aws, Sad ibn Muaadh and Usayd ibn Hudayr.
The following year when the Hajj season came, more than seventy men from al-Aws and al-Khazraj came and invited the Messenger of Allaah
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to come to Madeenah after the people of Makkah had persecuted him and boycotted him. During the night of one of the days of Tashreeq, the Messenger made an appointment to meet them at Aqabah. When one third of the night had passed, they came out to meet him and found the Messenger of Allaah Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), accompanied by his uncle al-Abbaas, who was not a believer, but he wanted to take care of his nephews affairs. Al-Abbaas, the Messenger and the people spoke together in a pleasant manner, then the Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) accepted their oath of allegiance on the basis that he would migrate to them in Madeenah and they would protect him, support him and defend him, and Paradise would be theirs in return. They gave their oath of allegiance, one by one, then they left. Quraysh found out about them, so they set out in pursuit of them. But Allaah saved them from them, and the Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) remained in Makkah for a while:
Verily, Allaah will help those who help His (Cause). Truly, Allaah is All Strong, All Mighty
[al-Hajj 22:40 interpretation of the meaning]
Then the Messenger commanded his companions to migrate to Madeenah, so they migrated in groups except for those who were prevented from doing so by the mushrikeen. Then there were no Muslims left in Makkah apart from the Messenger of Allaah, Abu Bakr and Ali. When the mushrikeen realized that the companions of the Messenger of Allaah
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had migrated to Madeenah, they feared that he would join them and become strong. So they agreed to kill him. Jibreel told the Messenger of Allaah about that, so the Messenger commanded Ali to sleep in his bed, and he returned the things that had been entrusted to the Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to their owners. The mushrikeen spent the night at the door of the Messenger, waiting to kill him when he came out, but he came out in the midst of them and went to the house of Abu Bakr, after Allaah had saved him from their plot. And Allaah revealed the words (interpretation of the meaning):
And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you (O Muhammad) to imprison you, or to kill you, or to get you out (from your home, i.e. Makkah); they were plotting and Allaah too was plotting; and Allaah is the Best of those who plot
Then the Messenger of Allaah
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) resolved to migrate to Madeenah, so he and Abu Bakr set out to the cave of Thawr and stayed there for three nights. They hired Abd-Allaah ibn Abi Urayqit, who was a mushrik, as their guide, and the ylet him lead their camels. Quraysh were alarmed when he left, and they looked for him everywhere, but Allaah protected His Messenger. When the search for them died down, they travelled to Madeenah. When Quraysh despaired of finding them, they offered to anyone who could bring one or both of them to them two hundred camels. So the people intensified their search and on the way to Madeenah, Suraaqah ibn Maalik found them; he was a mushrik and he set out after them, so the Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed against him and his horses legs sank into the ground. So he realized that the Messenger of Allaah Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was protected, so he asked the Messenger to pray for him and said that he would not harm him. So the Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed for him and Suraaqah went back, and diverted the people away from them. Then he became Muslim after the conquest of Makkah.
When the Messenger
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) reached Madeenah, the Muslims exclaimed Allaahu akbar! with joy at his coming. Men, women and children came out to meet him, rejoicing. He stayed in Quba, where he and the Muslims built the mosque of Quba. He stayed there for over ten nights, then he rode on Friday and prayed Jumuah amongst Bani Saalim ibn Awf, then he rode his camel and entered Madeenah, with the people all around him taking the reins of his camel so that he would come and stay with them. The Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told them to leave her, for she would be guided (by Allaah), so she walked on until she sat down in the place where the Mosque is today.
Allaah made it possible for His Messenger to stay with his maternal uncles near the mosque, so he stayed in the house of Abu Ayyoob al-Ansaari, then the Messenger of Allaah
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent someone to bring his family and his daughters, and the family of Abu Bakr, from Makkah, and thus he brought them to Madeenah.
Then the Prophet
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his companions started to build his mosque in the place where the camel had sat down. He made the qiblah facing towards Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). Its pillars were made of tree trunks and its roof was made of palm branches. Then the qiblah was changed to the Kabah more than ten months after he had come to Madeenah.
Then the Messenger
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) established brotherhood (muaakhkhah) between the Muhaajireen and the Ansaar. The Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made a treaty with the Jews and wrote a document agreeing to peace and to defend Madeenah. The Jewish scholar Abd-Allaah ibn Salaam became Muslim but most of the Jews insisted on remaining kaafirs. In that year the Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married Aaishah (may Allaah be pleased with her).
In the second year, the adhaan was prescribed, and Allaah changed the qiblah to the Kabah, and the fast of Ramadaan was enjoined.
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) remained in Madeenah and Allaah supported him with His help. The Muhaajiroon and Ansaar consolidated their ranks around him, and their hearts were devoted to him. The mushrikoon, Jews and hypocrites came together to oppose him; they slandered him and fabricated lies against him, and they declared war on him, but Allaah commanded him to be patient, forbearing and tolerant. When their evildoing became too intense, Allaah gave the Muslims permission to fight, and the aayah was revealed (interpretation of the meaning):
Permission to fight (against disbelievers) is given to those (believers) who are fought against, because they have been wronged; and surely, Allaah is Able to give them (believers) victory
Then Allaah enjoined the Muslims to fight those who fought against them:
And fight in the way of Allaah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allaah likes not the transgressors
[al-Baqarah 2:190 interpretation of the meaning]
Then Allaah commanded them to fight all the mushrikeen:
and fight against the Mushrikoon (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah) collectively as they fight against you collectively
[al-Tawbah 9:36 interpretation of the meaning]
Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his companions began to call people to Allaah and to strive in jihaad for the sake of Allaah. He foiled the plots of their enemies and relieved the oppression of the oppressed. Allaah supported them with His help, until the religion was all for Allaah. He fought the mushrikeen at Badr in 2 AH, in Ramadaan, and Allaah granted him victory over them and he defeated them. In 3 AH the Jews of Bani Qaynuqaa committed treason by killing one of the Muslims, so the Messenger Page not found – Muslim Converts(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) expelled them from Madeenah to Syria. Then Quraysh avenged their dead who were slain at Badr. They camped around Uhud in Shawwaal of the year 3 AH. Battle raged and the archers disobeyed the command of the Messenger, so the Muslims did not achieve victory, but the mushrikoon went back to Makkah without having entered Madeenah.
Then the Jews of Bani al-Nudayr committed treason and resolved to kill the Messenger
Page not found – Muslim Converts