In the name of Allah ,the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

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The PURITY
by:  Abdulrahman Al-Sheha.
Original language:  English.
Translted to english by:  Ghalib Ahmad Masri.
Publishing house:  Islamic Propagation Office in RABWAH.
Publishing date:  1422H/2001G.
ISBN:  .


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Tayammum

            It is a form of purification that replaces and substitutes wudu' and ghusl in case water is lacking or inaccessible. It enables us to do whatever wudu and ghusl allow us to do, including prayer, touching the Qur'an and the like. The Qur'an says which meaning is translated as:� And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes after answering the call of nature, or you have been contacted women and you find no water, perform Tayammum with clean earth and wipe over your faces and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever Oft-pardoning, Oft-forgiving� (Al-Nisa:43).


Factors that Make Tayammum Permissible

  • Lack of water. Umran ibn Al-Hussain narrated that:� Allah's Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him saw a man sitting alone and that he did not perform prayer in congregation. He asked him what prevented him from joining prayer. The man told him that he had major ritual impurity (Janabah) in absence of water. The Prophet said: Make use of earth, for it suffices you� (Agreed upon).
  • In case water is harmful to the body if the latter is wounded or sick and the use of water is likely to delay healing or increase sickness. Jabir said:� We set out on a journey. One of us was hit with a stone that wounded his head, then he had a wet dream He asked his companions if it was permissible for him to perform Tayammum. They said: We do not think that you can use earth while water is accessible, so he took bath and died. When we came back to Allah's Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, he was told of the story. He said: They killed him! May Allah kill them! Why didn't they ask if they didn't know? Inquiry is the cure of ignorance. It would have been enough for him to perform Tayammum, or bandage his wound, wipe over the bandage and bath the rest of his body� (Abu Daud ,Ibn Majah & Darqutni).
  • If a person has water, but he needs it now or later for drinking and cooking, in such a case he may perform Tayammum and keep water for drinking. Abu Dhar heard Allah's Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him say:� Clean earth is a means of purification for Muslims even if they stayed without water for ten years. When they find water it will be good for them to use it� (Tirmidh,Nasai, Abu Daud etc.). Ali ibn Abi Talib, answering a question about a passenger who has "Janabah" while he has little water and he is afraid of thirst, said:� He should resort to Tayammum and should not wash with water� (Darqutni).
  • If the search for water will risk his life, honors or wealth, such if there were an enemy or there were a distance from water that would expose him to the danger of wild animals.
  • In case it is too cold and he cannot heat water, being almost sure that the use of cold water will cause him harm. Amr ibn Al-As said:� At a very cold night during Dhat Al-salasel expedition, I had a wet dream. I was afraid to risk my life if I took a bath, therefore, I performed Tayammum and led my companions in prayer. They told the Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him about the incident, upon which he called me and asked me: O Amr! Did you led your companions in prayer while were in state of Janabah? I told him the reason that prevented me from taking a bath, and said to him: I heard Allah, glory be to Him, say which meaning is translated as: Do not kill yourselves. Verily Allah is All-Merciful towards you. Allah Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him laughed and said nothing. The Prophet's silence is a sign of an approval because he never accepts or keeps silent if he sees a wrongful act� (Abu Daud).


Description of Tayammum

            A person who wants to perform Tayammum should intend purification or the removal of ritual impurity. Then he says 'Bismillah' and touches or strikes the clean earth once with the palm of his hand while his fingers are spaced. Then he should wipe his face using the inner side of his fingers and wipe his hands with his palms up to the wrists. As in the narration of Ammar (may Allah be pleased with him) I had a seminal emission and did not find water (for taking bath), I rolled in dust and did prayer. I mentioned that to the prophet of Allah peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, he said:� It was enough for you to do like this the prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him struck the ground with his palms and then blew (the dust) and then wiped his face and palms� (Agreed upon). In another narration by al Darqutnee � It was enough for you to strike your palms on the ground, then blow and then wipe your face and palms�.


Things That Invalidate Tayammum

  • Every thing that invalidates wudu' similarly invalidate Tayammum.
  • Finding water (for those who have no water for wudu).
  • When the excuses or constraints that prevent from using water one over.


Notes

  1. If a person performs Tayammum and prayer, then finds water or constraints are over after completion of prayer, he is not required to repeat that prayer, even if there is still time. Abu sa'id Al-Khudri said:� Two men set out on a journey. When time for prayer came they had no water, so they performed Tayammum and prayed. Later they found water, one of them re-performed that prayer, but the other did not. When they met Allah's Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and told him what happened to them, the Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said to the latter: you have done the sunnah, and said to the former: You have double reward.� (Abu Daud & Nasai).
  2. However if he finds water or restraints are over during his prayer, his prayer becomes invalid and he is required to perform wudu' and repeat the prayer. Abu Dhar said: I heard Allah's Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him say:� clean earth is a means of purification for a Muslim if he does not find water, even for ten years. When he finds it he must use it, for that would be better for him� (Tirmidh, Abu Daud, Nasai etc).
  3. A person who performs Tayammum in case of major ritual impurity (Janabah, for instance) for some acceptable reason that justify Tayammum, is not required to repeat his prayer. On finding water or when reasons for Tayammum one's are over, he must take a bath to remove ritual impurity. Omran ibm Al-Hussain narrated that:� Allah's Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him saw a man sitting alone and that he did not perform prayer in congregation. He asked him what prevented him from joining prayer. The man told him that he had major ritual impurity (Janabah) in absence of water. The Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said: Make use of earth, for it suffices you. Omran added that after they had found water, Allah's Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him gave a container of water to the man who was in a state of Janabah and said to him: Go and pour it on yourself� (Agreed upon).

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