FADAL (RIBA): A type of interest/ Taking something of superior quality in exchange for giving less of the same kind of thing of poorer quality. Allah Subahana wa Ta’ala has strictly prohibited any kind of Riba and has warned of severe punishment for those who have any association with it. See Holy Qur’an, Sura Al-baqara (2):275-280, Aali ‘Imran (3):130. See Riba
FADAK: A town near Al-Madina.
FAHISH: One who talks evil. Boastful in loudness.
FAI: War body gained without fighting.
FAJR (AL): "The Dawn". The time of the first obligatory Salat (Prayer). It can be prayed at any time between the first light of dawn and just before sunrise. Also called Subh (morning). Surah 89 of the Holy Qur’an.
FALAAH: "Success". Real success lies in "enjoining what is right and forbidding what is evil.." (Surah Aali ‘Imran (3):104). One of the sentences that is said during the Adhan and Iqama, "Haya ‘ala Falaah" (Come to Success). Other derivations: Muflih = the person who is successful, the person whose deeds and actions have gained Allah Ta’ala's pleasure. See Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Baqarah (2):1-5. See Aflaha: He has succeeded.
FALAQ (AL): "The daybreak". Surah 113 of the Holy Qur’an.
FAQEEH: An Islamic scholar who can give an authoritative legal opinion or judgment.
FAQIR: A poor person. In Islam, poverty may take two forms. (1). Worldly. A person who does not have the financial means to help himself. (2). In the Akhira (Hereafter). A Person who has failed to gain the pleasure of Allah Ta’ala, by way of disobedience, thus earning a place in the Nar (Hellfire).
FARAID: Plural of Farida. See Farida.
FARD: Obligatory. An act which is obligatory upon Muslims. Severe punishment awaits those who fail to carry out these acts. There are two categories: (1). Far ‘Ain: Obligatory on every Muslim who is mature, healthy and sane. (2). Fard Kifaya: Obligatory on at least one person in the Muslim community.
FARIDHA: A duty enjoined on all Muslims. Plural: Fara’idh.
FARSAKH: League; about three miles.
FASIQ: A person who engages in evil talk and deeds.
FATH (AL): "The Victory". Surah 48 of the Holy Qur’an.
FAT’HAN MUBEENA: "Manifest Victory". The Manifest victory that is referred to here is the peace treaty of Hudaibiyah. It was one of the greatest victories which the newly-born Islamic Ummah (nation) gained. On face value it seemed like a great setback for the Muslims, but infact it was, by the will of Allah Ta’ala, one of the main means by which the Muslims consolidated and grew. See Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Fath (48).
FATIHA: "The opening Chapter". Another name for Suratul-Hamd. Surah 1 of the Holy Qur’an.
FATIMA, MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HER: Daughter of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. She is one of the four greatest women ever created by Allah Ta’ala. The other three are: (1). Mariam (Mary), Mother of Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him. (2). Asiya, the wife of Fir’aun (Pharaoh). (3). Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her, the first wife of Muhammad, may the blessing of Allah be on him and his wives and family.
FATIR (AL): "The Creator". Also another name for al-Malaika. Surah 35 of the Holy Qur’an.
FATAT: A Female slave or young lady.
FATWA: A legal verdict given on a religious basis. The sources upon which a fatwa is based are the Holy Qur’an, Sahi Bukhari and Muslim, and all other authenticated Ahadeeth.
FAUZ AL-ADHEEM: The supreme victory, achievement, attainment, happiness, etc. The Fauz al-Adheem is realized only when one has gained the pleasure of Allah Ta’ala and thus gained a place in the Jannah (Paradise). All worldly gains and victories count for nothing if they have not earned one place in Paradise. Allah has repeatedly stated that the real victors are the inheritors of Paradise. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Maidah (5):122.
FIDYA: Compensation for missing or wrongly practicing necessary acts of worship. Fidya usually takes the form of donating money or foodstuff or sacrificing an animal. Contrast with Kaffara (making amends). See Kaffara.
FEEL (AL): "The Elephant". Surah 105 of the Holy Qur’an.
FIQH: Islamic Law.
FIR’AUN: "Pharoah". Title of the Ancient Egyptian rulers, particularly one who rejected the Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be on him, and tried to have him killed. They were famous for their cruelty and disbelief. See Holy Qur’an, Al-BAqara (2):49, Taha (20):9-80, Al-Qasas (28):1-42, Al-Fajr (89):10-14.
FIRDAUS: The middle and the highest part of Jannah (Paradise).
FITNA: This has meanings, depending on its context in the sentence: (1). Oppression or tumult, as in Surah Al-Baqara (2):193. 2 . Trial or punishment, as in Surah Al-Maidah (5):74. (3). Trial or temptation, as in Surah Al-Anfal (8):28. It can also mean causing discord between Muslims, or sedition.
FURQAAN (AL): "The Criterion". Another name of the Holy Qur’an. Surah 25 of the Holy Qur’an.
FUSSILAT: "They are expounded." Another name for Ha Min and As-Sajda. Surah 41 of the Holy Qur’an.