SAW: See Sallallahu ‘Alaihe wa Sallam.
SA’D IBN MU’AZ: Chief of the Aus tribe, who later came to be known as the Ansar. He died a Shaheed (martyr) as a result of a wound he received in the Battle of Khandaq (also known as the Battle of Al-Ahzab).
SA'I: Going seven times between the small hills of Safa and Marwa;one of the essential rights of both the hajj and Umra.See Safa and Marwa.
SA’ID: Blessed in the sight of Allah, as opposed to Shaqi, which means wretched. See Holy Qur’an, Houd (11):105.
SA’IR: The third level of Hellfire. It is reserved for the worshippers of fire. See Jahannam.
SAABIA: Worshippers of the stars, moons and other heavenly bodies. Originally the people of Sabaa, the Queen of Sheeba.
SAAD: "Saad". Surah 38 of the Holy Qur’an.
SAB’A AL-MATHANI: Another name for Surat al-Fatiha. Literally means "The Seven Often Recited Verse". Every Muslim recites Surat al-Fatiha at least seventeen times every day, and some a good deal more.
SAB’A TUWAAL: The first seven long Suwar of the Holy Qur’an.
SAB’AA (AS): An easterly wind.
SABAA: "Sabaa". City of Sheeba in Yemen. A city of the king and Prophet Sulaiman, peace be on him, and the Queen of Sheeba, Bilqis. Surah 34 of the Holy Qur’an. See Qur’an, An-Naml (27):15-44.
SABEEL: (1). Road, path, way, a means to an end. (2). "Fee Sabeeli’llah". In the path of Allah or in the cause of Allah.
SABIQOON: ‘Those who outstrip the rest, in the race to draw near to the mercy and blessings and love of Allah. See Muqarraboon. SABR: Patience and perseverance. Allah Ta’ala has promised "Falaah" (success) in this world and in the Hereafter to those Muslims who have Sabr, especially during times of hardship. See Holy Qur’an, Aali ‘Imran (3):200.
SADAQA: (1. Anything given away in charity for the pleasure of Allah. 2. One of the eight gates of Jannah. See Jannah.
SAFA: A small hill in Makka to the east Al-Masjid al-Haram. The Hujjaj must walk seven times between the two small hills of Safa and Marwa. This is called Sa’i.
SAFA AND MARWA: Two small hills in Makkah, in Al-Haram as-Shareef (the Grand Masjid) to the east. It is an essential part of an Umra and the Hajj to walk seven times between the two places, quickening one’s step briefly between them . This is called Sa’i. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):158.
SAFAHA: "He forgave". Forgiving in the sense of overlooking, ignoring or turning away from misdeeds. See Maghfira.
SAFF (AS): "The Battle Ranks". Surah 61 of the Holy Qur’an.
SAFFAAT (AS): "Those Ranged in Ranks". Surah 37 of the Holy Qur’an.
SAFFAH: A raised platform. A verandah attached to the Prophet’s Mosque in Madina where poor Muslims, including some of his most exalted companions, used to sleep, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them.
SAGHIR (AL): Minor sins committed by Ins wal-Jinn (mankind and Jinn) against Allah Ta’ala.
SAHABI: Companion, particularly any companion of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Plural: Sahabiyeen.
SAHABIYEEN: The companions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him, his family and his companions. Singular: Sahabi.
SAHIH: Healthy and sound with not defects. Authentic, as regards Ahadeeth, such as Sahi Bukhari and Sahi Muslim.
SAHIH BUKHARI: A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Bukhari.
SAHIH MUSLIM: A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Muslims.
SAHU: Literally means forgetting. If one adds to or substracts from what is required during the Salat (Prayer), out of forgetfulness or lack of attention, then one must perform two extra prostrations at the end of the Salat. This is called Sajda Sahu.
SAIYID: Master. It is a title given to the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family.
SAIYIDINA: Our master. This usually refers to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but may also be used when mentioning the name of any prophet of Allah Ta’ala.
SAIYIDUL ANBIYAA WAL MURSALEEN: "The Master of all Prophets and Apostle". This is the title of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He is also called: 1). Imamul Mursaleen - the leader of all Prophets. 2). Ashraful Mursaleen - the Most Honoured amongst all the Prophets.
SAJDA (AS): 1). Prostration. The act of making prostration, particularly in the Salat (prayer). 2). "The Prostration". Surah 32 of the Holy Qur’an. It is so called because it contains a verse (verse 15) whereby, if one hears it being recited, one must prostrate. There are fifteen such Ayat (verse) in the Holy Qur’an. One should be in Ghusl and in Wudu when in Sajda. Plural: Sujud.
SAJDA SAHU: See Sahu.
SAKARAT AL-MAUT: The ‘drunkenness’ of death. There are three signs which indicate that the person who is suffering the pangs of death is a believer: 1. Sweating on the forehead. 2. Tears appear in the eyes. 3. The nostrils dilate. Likewise, the three signs of a disbeliever next to death are: 1. Irregular breathing. 2. Changing Colour. 3. Frothing at the mouth.
SAKINA: Calm, peaceful tranquility, perfect calmness, serenity, due to the Presence of Allah being made clear and apparent. See Holy Qur’an, At-Taubah (9):26, 40, Al-Fath (48):4, 18, 26.
SALAAM: 1. Synonym of Salaf. See Salaf. 2. Peace, peace of the body and soul in all aspects. See Holy Qur’an, Mariam (19):62.
SALAF: A price paid for goods to be delivered later.
SALAFI: Literally, "the early years". Salafi is used generally to describe the early generations of the Muslims, particularly the companions of the messengers of Allah and those who followed them, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them. In the present age the term is sometimes used to describe a Muslim who closely follows the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet Muhammad and As-Salafiyeen as-Saliheen, the righteous companions of Muhammad.
SALAFIYEEN AS-SALIHEEN (AS): All the righteous companions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad who followed the Holy Prophet in all that he did and said, without any deviation or misinterpretation, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them.
SALAT: 1. Prayers. There are five daily obligatory prayers in Islam, consisting of fixed sets of standings, bowings, prostrations and sitting in worship to Allah. These are called Rak’at. The number of Rak’at in each prayer and their timings are: i. Fajr - dawn - two Rak’at. ii. Duhr - Noon - four Rak’at. iii. ‘Asr - Afternoon - four Rak’at. iv- Maghreb - sunset - three Rak’at. v. Isha - late evening - four Rak’at. These five Salat are one of the Arkan of Islam. See Arkan. It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu when doing the Salat. For voluntary Salat: See Nafilah. 2. One of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See Jannah.
SALATUD-DUHA: A Nafl Salat that is prayed after sunrise and before noon.
SALATUL-JANAZA: Funeral Prayer. It is permitted to do salatul Janaza only over the dead bodies of Muslims. This prayer is done in the standing position only, and usually immediately before the burial. It contains four Takbirs: 1. After the first Takbir - read Suratul Fatiha. After the second Takbir - recite any Dua’a for the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but it is preferred to do the Tashahud (see Tashahhud) and the Salat al-Ibrahimiya: "Allahumma Alle ‘ala Muhammad wa ‘ala alee Muhammad kama Salaita Ibrahim wa ‘ala Ibrahim; fill ‘alameen innaka hameedun majeed. Allahumma barak ‘ala Muhammad wa’ala alee Muhammad kama barak ta ibrahim wa’ala alee Ibrahim; fill ‘alameen innaka hamidun majeed." (O" Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You blessed Ibrahim and the Family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You are Praiseworthy, Glorious. O Allah, give Muhammad blessing and the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You are Praiseworthy, Glorious.") 3. After the third Takbir - pray for the deceased person, his or her relatives and the Muslim people in general. 4. After the fourth Takbir - this marks the end of salat. Face your right shoulder and say "Assalamu Alaykum warahmatullah" ("Peace be on you and the Mercy of Allah").
SALATUL-SHURUQ: A Nafl Salat of four Rak’at that is prayed a short while after sunrise.
SALATUL-TASBIH: A special Nafl Salat of four Rak’at. This Salat involves praising Allah Ta’ala by including "Subhanallah, wal hamdu lillah, wa la ilaha illalah, wallahu akbar" ("Glory to Allah, and praise to Allah, and there is no God except Allah and Allah is Greatest") seventy-five times in each Rak’a.
SALB: The belongings of person killed in battle; e.g. his weapons, horse, motorbike, etc.
SALEH, PEACE BE ON HIM: A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Thumud who lived in the north-western part of the Arabian Peninsula. They were destroyed for rejecting him. The remains of their stone dwellings still exist today. See Holy Qur’an, Al-’Araf (7):73-79, At-Tawbah (11):61-68, Ash-Shu’ara (26):141-159, An-Naml.
SALAH: Righteous and goodly person, someone who is in the right place at the right time. It may also mean healthy and sound body and soul.
SALLAHU ‘ALAIHE WA SALLAM: May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him. This is said whenever the name or title of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is mentioned or read.
SALMAN AL-FARISI: A famous Persian Muslim who helped to defend Madina from the pagan Quraish tribe in the months of Shawal and Dhu’l-Qa’da in 5AH by suggesting that the Muslims dig a trench around the unprotected parts. This battle came to be known as the Battle of Khandaq (Trench), or the Battle of Al-Ahzab (the Clans), See Holy Qur’an, Al-Ahzab (33):9-22. Prior to his accepting Islam, Salman al-Farisi had first embraced Judaism and then Christianity. He spent his life in search for knowledge and found it with the Prophet whose coming he had learned about from the Jews and the Christians of that time, Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him.
SALSABIL: A Fountain in Jannahy. Literally means "Seek the way". See Holy Qur’an, Al-Insan (76):18.
SALSAEEL, PEACE BE ON HIM: Name of the special angel who takes the souls of the Mu’minoon (the believers) wrapped in silk through the Seven heavens and presents them to Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala before returning them to their bodies and prior to putting them in their graves.
SAMAA: Heaven. In the sense of ‘Sky’. "Sab’a Samawat" - Seven Heavens. Plural: Samawat.
SAMAD (AS): Does not have an exact meaning in English. The closest word or words that indicate the meaning are: 1. Absolute" and "Eternal" and "Everlasting". 2. The One toWhom all created beings turn to for all their needs, and Who is not depending on anything or anyone for any need. 3. The Most Perfect in His Attributes. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. For a complete list:
SAMAWAT: Heavens. "Sab’a Samawat" - Seven Heavens, Singular: Sama.
SAQAR: The fourth Level of the Nar (Hellfire). This is where the atheists will be sent on the Day of Judgement. See Jahannam.
SARIYA: A small army sent by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peae, for a Jihad in which he did not personally take part.
SAYDD: Hunting for game. In Islam it is permitted to hunt game, provided that the hunting and killing of the game is done within the Shari’ah law. Saydd is prohibitted within the sacred precincts of the Haramiain. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Maidah (5):97-99:
SEEAAM: Fasting, from food and drink - and from sexual intercourse if you are married - during daylight, from the first light of dawn until sunset. Also spelled as Saum. Fasting in themonth of Ramadan is one of the Arkan (five pillars) of Islam. Allah Ta’ala has made it obligatory on every Muslim whether man or Woman, with the exception of: 1.A person who is ill. 2. A person on a journey of 16 Farsakhs (48 Miles) or more. 3. A Woman who is menstruating or who has just given brith. Once these situations no longer apply, the missed days must be compensated. The very young are exempted. The aged should fast, but if they find it difficult then they too are exempted and may feed poor people instead. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):184-185, 187.
SHA’BAN: the eighth month of the Islamic calendar. See Hijri.
SHAAM: Territory north of Arabia which is now divided into Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan.
SHAFAA’A: Intercession. On the Day of Judgement Allah Ta’ala, through His Grace and Mercy, will permit the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to intercede on behalf of the Muslim Ummah. Three other groups may also be given leave to intercede: 1. The Anbiyaa - the prophets. 2. The Ulama - the people of knowledge from amongst the Muslims. 3. The Shuhadaa - the martyrs who died in the cause of Allah Ta’ala.
SHAHADA: 1. To witness, in this world. See Shahadatain. 2. To bear witness, on the Day of Judgement. There will be four witness on Yaum al-Hisab (the Day of Reckoning): i. The Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Muslim Ummah against all the other Ummahs (communities and nations). ii. The earth and the day and the night will be given the power to speak and bear witness. iii. Everyone’s limbs will bear witness for or againts their owners. iv. One’s deeds. Singular of Shahadatain.
SHAHADATAIN: Bearing witness. In order to become a Muslim one must utter and believe in two Shahadas (Shahadatain): First Shahada: Ashhadu an la illa ill’allah. ( I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.) Second Shahada: Ashhadu anna Muhammadar rasoolullah. (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) The Shahadatain is the gateway to Islam and the gateway to the Garden. It is easy to say, but to act on it is a vast undertaking which has far-reaching consequenccs, in both inward awareness and outward action, in this world and in the next world. Continual affirmation of the Shahadatain is one of the Arkan of Islam. See Arkan.
SHAHAWAT: Desires and passion.
SHAHEED: Martyr in the cause of Allah Ta’ala. There have been many Shuhadaa in Islamic history, amongst whom are the following: Hamza, martyred at the Battle of Uhud in 4AH. Umar, Stabbed in Madinah on 27/12/23 AH. Uthman, axed at his home on 17/12/35 AH. Ali, stabbed while in Sajda on 17/9/40 AH. Hussein, martyred at the Battle of Karbulah (Iraq) om 9/1/61AH. Whoever is killed in the way of Allah goes straight to the Garden, may Allah be pleased with all of them. See Holy Qur’an, An-Nisaa (4):117-120. Plural: Shuhadaa.
SHAITAN: Satan. An evil Jinn who prompts mankind and Jinn to rebel againts Allah. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil that He has created. Plural: Shayateen. See Iblis. See Holy Qur’an, An-Nisa (4):117-120.
SHAJARA (ASH): A famous place near Madinah on the way to Makkah.
SHAKK WA ZANN (KUFR ASH): A major disbelief. Doubting any or all of the six artcles of faith (see ‘Aqaid). See Kufr.
SHAMS (ASH): "The Sun". Surah 91 of the Holy Qur’an.
SHAQI: Wretched in the sight of Allah, as opposed to Sai’d, which means blessed in the sight of Allah. See Holy Qur’an, Houd (11):105.
SHARI’A: Islamic Law as ordained by Allah Ta’ala. Literally it means ‘a road’. The Sharia is the legal and social modality of people based on the revelation of their propeht. The last Shari’a in History is that of Islam. It abrogates all previous Shari’as. It is, being the last, therefore the easiest to follow, for it is applicable to the whole human race wherever they are.
SHAWAL: Tenth month of the Islamic Calendar. See Hijri.
SHAYATEEN: Devils. Plural of Shaitan.
SHIGHAR: A type of marriage which is forbidden where persons exchange daughters or sisters in marriage without giving Mahr (dowry).
SHIRK: Opposite of Tawheed. To associate anyone or anything with Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala. Shirk is idol-worship. Idol-worship means attributing form to Allah, encasing Him in an object, a concept, a ritual or a myth - when Allah has no form, is not like anything and cannot be conceived of or preceived. Allah the Most Merciful is prepared to forgive any sin a man or Jinn may commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. There are threed types of Shirk: 1. Shirk al-Akbar (major Shirk). This is divided into four categories: a. Shirk ad-Du’a - invoking or supplicating to a false deity besides Allah Ta’ala, i.e. invocation or supplication by either invoking other than Allah or invoking Him through a created being or thing, such as a prophet, an angel, a saint, or even a bank manager. b. Shirk al-Niyyah wa Iraada wal Qasd - having the intention and determination to deliberately do any type of act of worship to a deity other than Allah Ta’ala. c. Shirk at-Ta’a - Obeying any created being or an object more than Allah Ta’ala. 2. Shirk al-Asghar (Minor Shirk). a. Shir a-Rea’ - Carrying out a religious act for worldly gains and not for the pleasure of Allah, e.g. giving Zakat for the sake of fame or praises. b. Shirk at-Tasmee’ swearing by other than Allah, and according relaying on other than Allah, or attaching more impotance to other than Allah. 3. Shirk al-Khafy (hidden Shirk) - being dissatisfied with what Allah has ordained for a particular person. Hidden Shirk is to inwardly associate something or someone as partner with Him, especially one’s self.
SHU’AIB, PEACE BE UPON HIM: A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Madyan (Midian), but they rejected him, so Allah Ta’ala destroyed them with an earthquake. See Mursaleen. See Holy Qur’an, Al-A’raf (7);85-93, Houd 911):84-95.
SHUHADAA: Persons who die Fee Sabeeli’llah (in the path of Allah).. Allah has designated eight things for the Shuhadaa alone: They are the first to be forgiven. They are the first to see their place in Jannah They are exempted from ‘Adhabul-Qabr (trials and tribulations in the grave). They will be exempted from fear on the Day of Ressurection. They will crowned with the "Tajal-Waqar" (literally means "the crown of respect") on that Day. They will each be married to seventy-two "Houri’een" (see Hooriah). They will each be given permission to intercede on behalf of seventy-two of their relatives. The sweetness of Iman will physically glow from within them. Singular: Shaheed. See Shaheed.
SHURA (ASH): "The Consultation". Surah 42 of the Holy Qur’an.
SIDDIQ AND SADDIQEEN: The sincere and thruthful. The first and foremost followers of the prophets of Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala, may the blessing and peace of Alllah be on them. See Holy Qur’an, An-Nisaa (4):69.
SIDR: Lotus tree.
SIDRAT AL-MUNTAHA: "The lote-tree of the furthest limit." A tree over the Seventh Heaven near Paradise, the place where form ends and beyond which no cretaed being may pass. See Holy Qur’an, An-Najm (53):14-18.
SIFFIN: A place in Syria where in 36 AH, a famous battle between the followers of Ali, the Khalifa, and the followers supporting the claims of Mu’awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan took place byh the River Euphrates, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on whoever follows right guidance. A place near Al-Madinah al-Munawwarah.
SIJJIN: Comes from the root word ‘Sijjin, which means ‘prison’. Its exact nature is known to Allah Ta’ala alone. All that is revealed to us is that it is where the record of the evil doer is recorded; in contrast, the record of the righteous is kept in Illyou. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Mutafifeen (83): 7-9.
SIRAAT (AS): Literally means "road". It is the bridge over the Nar (Hellfire) which must be crossed to enter the Garden on the Day of Judgement. It is described in Ahadeeth as being narrower than the blade of asword, thinner than a hair and as having hooks over it to snatch wrongdoers and throw them into Jahannam. Some will cross the Siraat into the Garden like lightning or like the wind, some with ease, some with difficulty, some with great difficulty and some will fall into the waiting Fire below. See Holy Qur’an, Mariam (19):71.
SIRATUL-MUSTAQEEM: Literally means "the straight path". The path that the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, demonstrated to mankind and the Jinn by way of the Holy Qur’an and Ahadeeth. The path that leads to the Garden.
SIRQ: Theft. One of the Kabair (major sins) in Islam. Allah Ta’ala has ordained that the hand that steals be severed, under certain circumtances.
SIRRI: Quiet recitation of the Holy Qur’an and during Salat, as in Duhr and ‘Asr Salat (prayers).
SIWAK: A piece of branch or root of a tree called al-Arak used as a tootbrush.
SOHT: Ill-gotten property or money. Forcing someone to part with their good or money through theft, coercion, embezzlement, usury or by any other means that will incur the wrath of Allah.
SUBH: "Morning". Another name for the first obligatory Salat (Prayer) which is performed at dawn. See Fajr.
SUBHAN ALLAH: Glory be to Allah. Far removed is He from anything imperfect associated with Him and far removed is He from anything unsuitable ascribed to Him!
SUBHANA RABBI AL-’ADHEEM: "Glory be to my Lord, the Greatest." This is said three times when one is in Ruku’ during Salat (prayers). See Rak’a.
SUBHANA RABBI AL-’ALA: "Glory be to my Lord, the Most high." This is said three times when one is in Sujud during Salat (prayers). See Sajda.
SUBHANA WA TA’ALA: "May He be Glorified and Exalted." One of the many ways of glorifying Allah the Almighty. It means "Glory be to Allah on High. Far removed is He from any imperfection". The shortened from of this glorification is "Allah Ta’ala".
SUFFA (AS): A shaded place in Masjid al-Rasool, may Allah bless him and grant him in peace, in Madinah where poor people used to take shelter.
SUHUR: A meal taken before fajr in the month of Ramadan
SUJUD: See Sajda.
SULIMAN, PEACE BE ON HIM: Solomon. A prophet of Islam and a wise king. He was the son of the Prophet (and king) Dawood (David), peace be on both of them. He ruled the north-western Arabian Peninsula for about forty years. Allah Ta’ala gifted him with many powers, which included having power over the winds, being able to converse with the birds and ants and other animals, and having power over the evil Jinn. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Anbiya (21):79-82, An-Naml 927):15-44, Saba (34):12-14, Saad (38):30-40.
SUNNAH: All traditions and practices of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that are recorded not only in such books as Sahi Bukhari and Sahi Muslims, but also in living people to whom these traditions and practices have been transmitted, from person to person, from then until now. Although the Sunnah has come to refer almost exclusively to the pratice of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peae, it also comprises the customs of the first generation of Muslims in Madina. They learned their Islam directly from the Prophet, not from books, and transmitted what they had learned to the next generation. Thus they have become models who all Muslims should follow. The Sunnah is a complete behaviourial science that has been systematically kept outside the learning framework of this society. It cannot be learned from books, although books can be helpful. It can only be learned from real Muslims who are true teachers. Plural Sunnan.
SUNNAN: Plural of Sunnah. See Sunnah.
SURAH: A chapter of the Holy Qur’an. Literally means "a form". There are 114 Suwar in the Holy Qur’an. Plural; Suwar.
SUTRA: An object like a pillar, wall, stick or anything that is placed in front of a praying person so that people will pass beyond it and not ‘break’ his or her Qiblah and concentration.
SUWAR: Chapters. There are 114 Suwar in the Holy Qur’an. Singular: Surah.