In the name of Allah ,the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful



Announcement

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MA’ARIJ (AL): "The Ways of Ascent". Surah 70 of the Holy Qur’an.

MA’RIFA: A Spiritual realization of Allah Ta’ala. Gnosis.It is to directly witness the Light of the Names of Attributes of Allah manifested in the heart.

MA’SHAR: Assemblies. Whether they be assemblies of mankind or of the Jinn or both.

MA’UN (AL): "Small Kindnesses". Surah 107 of the Holy Qur’an.

MABRUR: A Hajj that is accepted by Allah because of its perfection in both inward intention and outward observance of the traditions of Rasoolu’llah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

MADYAN: People of the Prophet Shu’aib, peace be on him. They were destroyed by an earthquake for rejecting Shu’aib and the warnings from Allah he had brought with him. See Holy Qur’an, Al-A’raf (7):8593, Houd (11):84-95.

MAGHFEER: A foul-smelling gum.

MAGHAZI (AL): Plural of Ghazwa. See Ghazwa.

MAGHDOUB: "Cursed" by Allah Ta’ala. Surah Al-Fatiha (1):7, "...Maghdoubee ‘alaihim.." (those that have been cursed) refers to the Jews. Allah Ta’ala has cursed them for continually breaking their covenants. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):83-86, 100, Al-maidah (5):13-14, 73.

MAGHFIRA: "Forgiveness". In the Holy Qur’an Allah Ta’ala uses three different words to mean "forgive".

1). ‘Afa. Forgave, in the sense of obliterating the memory of wrongdoing from one’s mind. 2). Safaha. Forgave, in the sense of overlooking, ignoring or turning away from misdeeds. 3). Maghfira. Comes from one of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. "Al-Ghafur", which means to forgive again and again.

MAGHREEB: Sunset. The fourth compulsory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It consists of three Raq’as. It can be prayed at any time between just after sunset and before the stars appear in the sky.

MAGHREBEE: A combination of Kufee (angular) and Naskh (curved) Scripts often used for hand-written copies of the Holy Qur’an written in north-west Africa.

MAHRAM: A Man whom a woman can never marry because of closeness of relationship (e.g. father, brother, uncle, son, etc.) Her husband is also her Mahram.

MAHR: Dowry given by a husband to his bride on marriage.

MAIDA (AL): "The Table Spread". Surah 5 of the Holy Qur’an.

MAISER: Gambling. Literally means getting something too easily. Maiser has been prohibited by Allah Ta’ala in the strongest terms possible : "Ajtibou" - "Leave it!". It is a higher level of prohibition than forbidding it because it is Haram. Haram = a direct prohibition ordered by Allah Ta’ala. Ajtanibou = a degree more serious than Haram. It is not only Haram, but also a direct command not to approach or be near it for nay reason whatsoever. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):219, Al-Maidah (5):93.

MAJEED (AL): "Al-Majeed". The Most Gracious. One of the ninety nine attributes of Allah. For a full list of the Asmaul Husna of Allah ta’ala.

MAJOOS: Fire worshippers. These people lived mainly in Persia and the Eastern Arabian Peninsula in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Hajj (22):17.

MAKR: Has two meanings: 1). Plotting or planning with evil intent 2). Planning for a good purpose. "Wa Makaru wa Makara Allah wa’llahu Khairul Makereen" (Surah Aali ‘Imran (3):54). "They planned and Allah planned and Allah is the best of planners." Makaru = they plotted. Makara = planned. Makara = plotted. makareen = plotters. See Holy Qur’an, Aali ‘Imran (3):54,

MAKROUH: Disapproved of, but not prohibited by Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala. See Ahkam.

MALAIKAH: 1). "Angels". Another name for Suratul Fatir. Surah 35 of the Holy Qur’an. 2). A race of created beings that are made out of light. Their sole purpose in creation is to worship and glorify Allah and to perform their duties exactly as described. They are incapable of disobedience. They do not eat, or sleep, or procreate. Their exact number is unknown. Amongst the well-known ones are the following: i). The angel Jibreel (Gabriel) - the angel whose duty is to communicate between Allah Ta’ala and the Prophets and to whomever Allah wills; i.e. he was commanded to communicate with Mariam (Mary, mother of Prophet Jesus), Jesus and Muhammad, may Allah bless them and grant them peace. ii). The angel Mikaeel (Micheal) - the angel of provisions. iii). The angel of Death - takes the souls of people when they die. Many Muslims mistakenly call him Izrael. The name "Izrael" is neither mentioned in the Holy Book of Allah, the Holy Qur’an, nor by Muhammad, may Allah bless and grant him peace, in any of the Ahadeeth. The name "Izrael" is mentioned in the Taurat and therefore has been ‘borrowed’ from the Jews. Beware of such innovations. Copying the Jews or any other unbelievers, and then saying "This is from Allah", is Kuffur. iv). The angel Israfeel - the angel who will blow the horn to bring the universe to its end. v). The angel Ridwan - Keeper of Jannah (Paradise). vi). The angel Maalik - Keeper of Nar (Hellfire). vii). The angels Munkar and Nakeer - the two angels who are assigned to question the souls of the dead in their graves about their faith. Peace be on all of them. Singular: Malak.

MALAK: Singular of Malaikah (angels). See Malaikah.

MAMNU’A: What is prohibited in acts of worship in the Shari’a. For example, doing voluntary Salat (prayers) between the Fajr Salat and sunrise, or between the Asr Salat and sunset; fasting on either of the two ‘Eid days.

MANAAT: A famous goddess in Hijaz who used to be worshipped by the pagan Arabs in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. See Holy Qur’an, an-Najm (53):20.

MANASI (AL): A huge plateau on the outskirt of Madinah.

MANASIK: General sacrifice in the path of Allah Ta’ala. All deeds and actions during Hajj are regarded as Manasik, for they are indeed regarded as sacrifices in the path of Allah.

MANSOOKH: Abrogated. The abrogation of certain commands usually came with increased belief or change in situation. Only Allah Ta’ala has the power to abrogate verses of the Holy Qur’an. An example of an abrogated statement is:"...wa in toobdu ma fee anfooseekum aw tookhfoohu youhasibkum bihi Allah.." (Al Baqara (2):284), "...whether you show what is in your mind or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it...". when the Muslims heard this Ayah they went to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said: "O Rasoolullah, we cannot control ourselves, but how can we control the outburst in our hearts? (i.e. sudden thoughts that shaitan puts within us). The Prophet Muhammad said: "Do you intend to say, ‘Same’na wa ‘asaina (We hear and we disobeyed), as did both the people of the Book (i.e. the Jews and the Christians)? say, ‘Same’na wa ata’na! So they said, ‘Same’na wa ata’na’ (We hear and we obey). On hearing their reply Allah Ta’ala abrogated this verse, by revealing the 286th verse of Surah al-Baqara: "La youkalifu’llau nafsan illa wus’aha.." The aim of the 284th verse of Surah al-Baqara was to test the followers of Muhammad, may the blessings of Allah be on him and them, as to whether or not they would say the same as the Jews and the Christians who used to say, "Same’na wa ‘asaina" (We hear and we disobey).

MAQAM IBRAHIM: The station of Ibrahim. The place where the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be on him, stood in prayer, and which marks the place of prayer following Tawaf of the Ka’bah. This place today is marked by a stone in which there are two large sunken footprints, said to have been made by the Prophet Ibrahim when he stood on the stone while he and his son Ismael were building the Ka’aba.

AL-MAQAM AL-MAHMOOD: The highest station in Jannah (Paradise). This place will be granted to the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and to no-one else. Sahi Bukhari, Hadith 242, Vol. 6.

MARIAM, PEACE BE ON HER: "Mary". The Virgin Mary. Daughter of ‘Imran and Hannah and mother of Prophet Isa (Jesus) peace be on him. She is the first of the four greatest females created, the other three being:

1). Asiya, the wife of Fir’aun (Pharaoh). 2). Khadija, the first wife of Muhammad. 3). Fatima, Daughter of Muhammad, May the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and all his wives and family. Surah 19 of the Holy Qur’an.

MARUT: One of the two angels that were sent by Allah as a trial to mankind by way of allowing Harut and Marut to teach them magic. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):102.

MARWA: A small hill in Makkah close to the holiest Masjid in Islam, Al-Masjid al-Haram. See Sa’i, Safa and Marwa.

MASAD (AL): "Palm Fibre". Another name for Surah Abi Lahab. This surah condemned Abi Lahab and his wife to Hellfire (many years before their deaths) for their Kufr, especially their violent opposition to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Surah 111 of the Holy Qur’an.

MASAJID: "Mosque". Place of worship for the Muslims. Singular: Masjid. The whole earth is a Masjid for the Muslims, the dome of the heaven its roof.

MASAKEEN: People who are very poor and in need; not only those who are visibly in need, but also those who seem in no need of help, but who in reality are very poor. Singular: Miskeen.

MASEEH: "Massiah". A title which means "Annointed" or "Christ". There are two Messiahs:

1 . Maseeh Isa ibn Mariam - Christ Jesus, Son of Mary. The title of Maseh (Christ) was given to the great Prophet Isa (Jesus), Son of Mary , peace be on them. Masee ad-Dajjal - Christ the Liar. This title is given to the false Christ (the Antichrist as termed by the Christians), who will appear before the Day of Resurrection, falsely claiming to be prophet Jesus, Son of Mary. One of the major signs of the coming of the Day of Judgment will be when the Maseeh ad-Dajjal appears. He will then be shortly followed by the Prophet Isa (Jesus), the Son of Mary, peace be on them. The Prophet Jesus will then slay the Dajjal (Antichrist) and the Dijjal’s followers by a miracle. The Prophecy of the second coming of the -------------------- ------------------------- ???????????????????????????

MAWAQEET: Plural of Miqat. See Miqat.

MI’RAJ: The Night Journey of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from Makka to Jerusalem and then through the realms of the seven Heavens, beyond the limit of forms, the Sidrat al-Muntah, to within a bow-span’s length or nearer to the Presence of Allah. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Isara (17):1. See Bukhari, Hadith 345, Vol. 1, Vol. 1, 227, Vol. 5.

MIHIRAAB: Prayer niche of a Masjid (mosque), in front of which the Imam stands when leading the congregational prayers.

MIMBAR: Steps on which the Imam stands to deliver the Khutba on the day of the Jum’a.

MINA: A Place five miles from Makkah and approximately ten miles from ‘Arafat. An essential place to visit during the Hajj. For full information on the importance of Mina during the Hajj. See Hajj.

MIQAT: Certain places specified by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for people to assume Ihram on their way to doing the Hajj or an Umra. Plural: Mawaqeet.

The Mawaqeet are: Following are people or nationalities of different places and their specified locations of Miqat: 1.) (From Makkah itself)---- Tan’im Makkah 2.) Madinah (from the north)---- Dhu’l-Hulayfa (Abar Ali) 3.) Najd, Arabia (from the east) ---- Qar al-Manazil 4.) Yemen (from the South) Yalamlam 5.) Shaam (from the west and north-west)---- Al-Juhfa 6.)Iraq (from the north-east)---- Dhir 'Irq.

MISKEEN: A very poor and needy person. Plural:Maskeen.

MITHQAAL: A measure of weight for weighing gold in this world and deeds on the Day of Judgment in the next world.

MU’JEZZAT: Miracles.

MUHKAM: Qur’anic verse which have a clear-cut meaning.

MU’TAKIF: A person who is in the state of ‘Itikaf. See ‘Itikaf.

MUADHEEN: The man who calls the Adhan loudly before each obligatory Salat (Prayer), calling the people to prayer.

MUAKKAD (SALAT): Voluntary prayers regularly done. This type of optional prayer was virtually always done by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Nafilah.

MUAWUDTHATAIN: The two Surahs of seeking protection, Surah Al-Falaq (113) and Surat An-Nas (114). These Suwar were revealed for mankind and the Jinns to protect themselves from evil and black magic. It is Kufr (unbelief) to delve into the black arts, since this is a denial of the truth that there is no strength and no power except from Allah.

MUBARAK: Blessed. Having received the blessing of Allah.

MUBASHIRAT: Glad tidings. Good dreams.

MUBIQAAT: major, Destructive sins.

MUDDATHIR (AL): "The Cloaked One". Surah 74 of the Holy Qur’an.

MUFFASAL: The last, shorter Surahs of the Holy Qur’an. All the Suwar from Surah Qaf (50) to Surah an-Nas (114).

MUFFASSALAT: Same as Mufassal.

MUFRID: A Muslim who remembers Allah Ta’ala constantly.

MUHABBAH (SHIRK AL): A Major Shirk. Loving a created being or an object more than Allah Ta'ala. See Shirk.

MUHADITH: A scholar of Ahadeeth (sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace). plural: Muhaditeen.

MUHADITHEEN: Scholars of Ahadeeth (Sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Singular: Muhadith.

MUHAJIR: A Muslim who emigrated from Makkah to Madinah during the time of the great repression of the Muslim by the pagan Quraish up until the conquest of Makkah 8AH by the prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Plural: Muhajireen.

MUHAJIREEN: Plural of Muhajir. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Hashr (59):8-9, Al-Munafiqun (63):7. See Muhajir.

MUHAMMAD, MAY ALLAH BLESS HIM AND GRANT HIM PEACE: The Final Messenger of Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala to Ins wal Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Born in Makkah in 570AC. At the age 40 he was called upon to become the mightiest of all messengers. He died in Madinah at the age of 63 after gloriously completing his transmission of the divine Message. He was the bringer of the greatest miracle of all time, the Holy Qur’an. It is through him that Allah Ta’ala has enlightened mankind and the Jinn until the Day of Judgment. He is the Best Creation, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his companions and all who follow him and them in what they are able,with sincerity, until the Last Day. To those Jews and Christians who rejected the holy Prophet Muhammad, let it be known that Muhammad is actually mentioned by name in the Old Testament in the original Hebrew Song of Solomon, Ch., 5 V. 16. But for some misguided reasons they have chosen to adulterate it by changing it from "Muhammadim" (in the Hebrew) to "altogether lovely" in the English. (Muhammad + im is a term of respect in Hebrew.) Similarly, Muhammad is actually mentioned by name in the New Testament in John 14:16-26, 15:26 and 16:13. The greek word "Periqleitos" (Paraclete), which is the equivalent of the Aramaic word "Mhamda", means precisely what "Ahmad" means in Arabic, "the most praiseworthy", and "Ahmad" is one of the Prophet Muhammad’s name, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. But for some misguided reasons they have chosen to adulterate it by changing it from "Mhamda" (in the Aramaic) to "Comforter" or "Counsellor" in the English. Many other references to Muhammad which existed in the original Torah and Ingeel have been removed altogether.Allah Taala's wrath awaits those who knowingly alter or hide His words.Allah Ta’ala has given Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the following names: Muhammad: The one who praises and is praised. Ahmad: the Most praiseworthy. Al-Mahi: The effacer (of Kufr). Al-’Aqib: The last . Mustafa: The chosen. Al-Amin: The trusworthy. Surah 47 of the Holy Qur’an. For the chronological list of the main events in the Prophet Muhammad’s life, may Allah bless him and grant him peace:

MUHARRAM: The first month of Islamic calendar. Strictly forbidden by Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala.

MUHEET: 1). Encompassing, in the sense of being all around them, thus giving the sense that there will be no escape for the evildoers from Allah and His punishment, and that the believers will find Allah’s blessings and mercy wherever they turn. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):19, Houd (11):84. 2). The ocean (because it encompasses the land mass).

MUHRIM: One who assumes Ihram. See Ihram.

MUHRIMA: A female who assumes Ihram. See Ihram.

MU’SIR: A Mu’sir who intends to do Hajj and Umra, but is unable to do so due to some obstacles.

MUHSIN: One who is in a state of Ihsan and accordingly does right and does good deeds. Plural: Muhsineen. See Ihsan.

MUHSINEEN: People who do righteous deeds in a perfect manner. Singular: Muhsin.

MUJADALAH: "She who disputes". The Woman referred to is Khawla bint Tha’lab. Surah 58 of the Holy Qur’an.

MUJAHID: One who takes active part in a Jihad. Pural: Mujahideen. See Jihad.

MUJAHIDEEN: Muslims who take part in a Jihad. Singular: Mujahid. See Jihad.

MULAA’ANA: The act of carrying out Li’aan. See Li’aan.

MULAMMAS: "Touched", as a synonym of Lamas. See Lamas.

MULHID: Atheist. A complete disbeliever in Allah Ta’ala and the Last Day. Comes from Ilhad (atheism). Ilhad literally means deviation. For a full explanation: See Ilhad. Plural: Mulhidoon or Mulhideen.

MULK (AL): "The Sovereignty", of Allah Ta’ala. Surah 67 of the Holy Qur’an.

MULTAZAM: The area between the Black Stone and the door of the Ka’aba where it is recommended to make Du’a.

MUMIN (AL): "The Believer". Someone who trusts in Allah and accepts and follows His Messengers, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Another name for Al-Ghafir. Surah 40 of the Holy Qur’an.

MUMINOON (AL): "The Believers". Surah 23 of the Holy Qur’an.

MUMTAHANA: "She that is to be Examined". Surah 60 of the Holy Qur’an.

MUNABADHA: "Thrown", as synonym of Nibadh. See Nibadh.

MUNAFIQEEN: "Hypocrites". They are the worst of created beings, for they pretend to, but do not believe in Allah and the Last Day. Allah has cursed them (At-Tawbah (9):67-69) and on the Day of Judgment they will occupy the lowest of the Nar (Hellfire), called "Hutama". Also as Munafiqoon. Singular: Munafiq.

MUNAFIQOON: "The Hyprocrites". Surah 63 of the Holy Qur’an.

MUNKAR: 1). Name of one of the two angels who will question us in our graves. See Munkar wa Nakir. 2). Something that is disapproved of in Islam. 3). Something that is denied when it is said or pointed out. 4).Something that is refused when offered.

MUNKAR WA NAKIR, PEACE BE ON THEM: The two angels who will question the souls of the dead in their graves shortly after burial about faith, asking, "Who is your Lord? Who is your Prophet? What is your Book? What was your Deen? See Malaikah.

MUQARRABOON: Literally means "those who have been brought near". These are the most exalted, the most loved by Allah Ta’ala. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah Ta’ala will sort out the good and the evil into three groups: 1). Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are the nearest to Allah Ta’ala. Also described as the Sabiqoon, meaning ‘those who outstrip the rest’. 2) . Ashab al-Maimana - literally means "the Companions of the Right". These are the righteous people, those who are destined to enter the Jannah (Paradise). 3). Ashab al-Mashama - literally means "the Companions of the Left". These people will be the inheritors of the Nar (Hellfire). For full explanation on: Muqarraboon - see Al-Waqi’ah (56):11-26. Ashab al-Maimana - see Al-Waqi’ah (56):27-40. Ashab al-Mashama - see Al-Waqi’ah (56):41-56.

MUQATTA’AT: See Alif Lam Mim.

MURSALAAT (AL): "The Emissaries". Surah 77 of the Holy Qur’an.

MURSALEEN: Literally means "those who are sent". It refers to the prophets and messengers sent by Allah Ta’ala. Allah sent many prophets and messengers to preach the message of Tawheed to Ins wal Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Their exact number is not mentioned in either Holy Qur’an or in any of the authentic Ahadeeth. Here is a complete list of the Prophets and messengers of Allah who are mentioned in the Book of Allah Ta’ala, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on all of them.Each prophet as listed below,is respectively identified according to his a) Age b)Period of existence and c)Remarks or identification,as follows:

1). Adam a)950--- 1000b) ???c)The First Human
2). Idris a)83 b) ??? c)Enoch
3). Nooh (M) a)950 b)3900-2900 BC c) Noah and the list goes on with the same set-up 'till the last in prophet Muhammmad (PBUH)
4). Houd a)150 b)2500-2500 BC c)Preached to ‘Ad
5). Saleh a)58 b)2000-1900 BC c)Preached to Thamud
6). Ibrahim (M) a) 175 b)1861-1786 BC c)Abraham
7). Loot a)175 b)1861-1786 BC c)Lot
8). Ismael a)120 or 143 b)1781-1638 BC c)Ishmael
9). Ishaq a)178 or 180 b)1761-1681 BC c)Isaac
10). Yacoub a)147 b)1700 1653 BC c)Jacob
11). Yusuf a)110 b)1610-1500 BC c)Joseph
12). Shuaib ? b)1600 1500 BC c)Preached to Madyan
13). Ayoub a)92 b)1600-1500 BC c)Job
14). Dhu’l-Kifel a)75 b)1600-1500 BC c)Ezekiel
15). Musa (M) a)120 b)1436-1316 BC c)Moses
16). Haroon a)122 b)1436 1317 BC c)Aaron
17). Dawood (M) a)70 b)1439-937 BC c)David
18). Sulaiman a)53 b)985-932 BC c)Solomon
19). Ilyas ? b)9 BC ca. c)Elijah
20). Al-Yas’ ? b)9 BC ca. c)Elisha
21). Yunus ? 8 b)BC ca. c)Jonas
22). Zakaria a)120 b)100 BC 20 AC a)Father of Yahyah.
23). Yahay a)30 b)1 30 AC c)John the Baptist
24). Isa (M) a)33 b)1 33 AC c)Jesus
25). Muhammad (M) a)63 b)571-632 AC c)The Final Messenger (M) - a messenger as well as a prophet of Allah Ta’ala; i.e. one who came with a new message, revelation that confirmed the earlier revelations, but which contained new elements appropriate for its time. (M) - Messenger

MURTAD: "Apostate". Plural: Murtadeen.

MURTADEEN: People who become apostate, i.e. people who become unbelievers after having believed.

MUSA, PEACE BE UPON HIM: Moses. One of the greatest prophets and messengers of Islam.

MUSALLAH: A place for praying that is not a Masjid.

MUSHRIK: A person who commits Shirk. See Shirk.

MUSLIM: Literally means "Submission of will". i.e. to the will of Allah the Almighty. A Muslim is someone who follows the way of Islam, not abandoning what is Fard, keeping within the Hudood of Allah, and following the Sunnah, in what he or she is able. A Muslim is by definition one who is safe and sound, at peace in this world, and promised the Garden in the next world.

MUSTD’AF: One who is considered weak, and therefore is treated in a disrespectful manner. See Holy Qur’an, An-Nisaa (4):75.

MUSTAFA: One of the names of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, meaning "the chosen one’. See Muhammad.

MUSTAHAB: "Recommended". but not obligatory’. See Ahkam.

MUT’A: A temporary marriage. This was permitted in the early period of Islamic history, when the first Muslims were away from their homes for extensive periods of time; but was abrogated by the Holy Prophet Muhammad himself, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at Khaibar as is related by Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, Sahi Muslim and Sahi Bukhari.

MUTABBAR: Smashed into pieces. Destroyed. See Holy Qur’an. Al-A'raf (7):139.

MUTAFIFEEN: "The people who deal in Fraud". Surah 83 of the Holy Qur’an

MUTHEERA: The fragrant air Jannah (Paradise).

MUZDALLIFA: A site between ‘Arafat and Mina where the Hujjaj (pilgrims) spend the night of the 9th of Dhu’l Hijjah (after coming down from ‘Arafat). See Hajj.

MUZZAMMIL (AL): "The Enshrouded One". Surah 73 of the Holy Qur’an.

 


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